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What is pullorosis in chickens and how to treat it?

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Infection, called pylorosis, is an intestinal infection of the parenchymal organs of chickens. It causes inflammation in the ovaries in adult birds, leading to yolk peritonitis. Among other types of infectious diseases - dysentery, bacillary white diarrhea (diarrhea).

A distinctive feature of pullorosis in chickens is its asymptomatic course.

The first cases of Pulloraz birds of mass nature were observed in 1889. Then English scientists called this disorder bird salmonellosis. Pulloraz pathogen in poultry was identified in 1900. Bird typhoid, pullorosis, on European territory would have been recorded in 1913, on Russian poultry farms an intestinal infection appeared in 1924, when chickens and poults with signs of this disease were imported.

As a result of the impact of pullorosis on the body of young stock, the number of lethal outcomes among chickens reaches 70%. At the same time, the economic damage from it is also associated with a decrease in the productivity of adult chickens, a decrease in their egg production and hatchability of the new generation due to the problematic embryonic development of the fetus. Young chickens and turkey poults with Pulloraz disease begin to lose weight, which directly affects the breeding characteristics of poultry.

Etiological picture of pullorosis

bird pull of birds is caused by a pathogen belonging to the Salmonella order, which is a fixed Gram-negative bacillus and does not form a spore or capsules. Microbiology relates the pathogen of bird typhoid to aerobes.

For the activity of infectious bacilli, the most optimal temperature is 38 ° C with an alkaline pH of 7.5.

In the usual nutrient medium, the aerobes develop fairly quickly, easily forming round forms of translucent colonies with clear outlines and a slightly protruding moist surface. pullorosis can multiply in a rough form, then it grows in dry colonies.

The causative agent of typhoid birds is significantly resistant to external factors. So, in the poultry litter pullorosis persists for 100 days, in conditions of non-flowing water - up to 200, in the soil layer - up to 400. At the same time, in conditions of bird litter that is not replaceable for 10 days, the causative agent of pullorosis dies.

Scientists have noticed that when aerobic pullorosis is caught in a garden crop, while maintaining the temperature within 18-20 ° C in a dried state, it can live up to 7 years.

The long-term activity of pull-infection infection is observed under freezing conditions up to 180-190 days. Inactivating the pullorosis virus is possible when heated to 60 ° C for at least half an hour. At the boiling point, the aerobic body dies already after a minute, when an infected egg is boiled - after 7-8 minutes.

Various drugs and solutions can kill the infection:

  • 1% formalin can kill pulloz in 5 minutes,
  • Inactivation with carbolic acid will require a concentration of 5% and half a minute of time,
  • in 15-20 minutes, manganese, naphthazole, bleach with active chlorine will cope with the pullozic virus.

Scientists note the sensitivity of pullorosis bacteria to drugs from a number of antibiotics, however, an addiction infection is observed when the treatment is carried out with long-term use of the same medication.

Epizootology

In addition to poultry (turkeys, turkey poults, chickens, chickens, guinea fowls, pheasants and quails from the chicken squad), among other animals that are prone to the disease of pullorosis, rabbits, decorative pigs, mice are excreted. A small resistance against pullorosis birds recorded among waterfowl.

Among broilers, typhoid fevers are infected mainly with meat. The smallest cases of pullorosis in chickens are observed in those types of poultry that hatch to produce eggs.

The main mode of transmission of the disease is embryonic, when the infection passes through infected eggs to the newborn young. Such cases noted up to 50%.

Pullorosis is noted in young animals depending on the age category:

  • 5-7 days old chickens suffer from pullorosis more often, the disease progresses in them for 20 days,
  • when they reach the age of 20 days and beyond, the number of cases in chickens decreases, turning into subacute forms of leaking or chronic development.

Transmission of an intestinal infection occurs in different ways:

  • The source of transmission of the pathogen is infected youngsters and adult hens-carriers of the bacteria, which, together with excrement, release into the environment a large accumulation of the causative agent of pullorosis.
  • penetration of pullorosis into chicken eggs occurs through the intestinal contents of sick individuals through the shell pores,
  • sources of bacteria can be fluff, waste, drinking water, feed,
  • carriers of the disease are urban birds (sparrows, pigeons, jackdaws).

Usually, only 25 to 50% of chickens hatched from pullose infected eggs, the rest die in the process of embryonic development.

Pathogenic and clinical pictures of typhoid

Among the factors that contribute to the emergence and development of pullorosis in chickens and chickens, many are associated with the conditions of poultry housing and its quality of nutrition:

  • Inadequate diet and non-compliance with the feeding schedule,
  • crowded bird habitation,
  • overheating or overcooling of individuals.

Pathogenesis of infection

When ingested into the avian organism, the pathogen at the point of entry, for example, of the intestinal mucosa, stomach, pulmonary system, begins its reproduction and starts to spread through the blood system to all internal organs, leading to pathology of the heart, liver, kidneys, ovaries, spleen.

In the process of reproduction, pullorosis releases toxins into the body, leading to the death of the embryo.

When hatching, most chickens are already carriers of pullorosis, which is manifested with signs of acute intoxication. In the body of an adult bird, the pathogen is heated in the egg-forming organs and from time to time is secreted along with egg-laying.

Among the consequences of transferring pullorosis to birds, when proper treatment is provided, is the immunity to secondary infection produced against intestinal infection due to the formation of antibodies in the hens that have had pullorosis. This feature formed the basis of breeding work in breeding chicken lines that are resistant to bird typhoid.

Clinical signs

The latent period of pullorosis of birds can last from days to 20. At the same time, there are:

  • congenital form, in which already sick chickens hatch from infected eggs,
  • postnatal form, when healthy individuals become infected from patients in the process of their joint maintenance.

In congenital form, which develops within 3-5 days, the disease manifests itself in chickens in the form of general weakness and drowsy states. Juveniles lose their appetite and refuse to feed, moves with lowered wings. Among the physiological symptoms of white liquid diarrhea. Similar clinical signs in infected postnatal way, which progresses over a period of 2 to 5 days.

Acute form of development

It is observed after 3 days or a week and is accompanied by difficulty breathing, the lack of coordinated movements of the chickens, and the low mobility of the birds. Usually, diseased individuals freeze in a fixed state with their eyes closed, with their legs wide apart, which is often shown by veterinarians as a good example of the clinical picture in the photo. There is a rise in temperature up to 44 ° C. The main symptom of acute development of pullorosis is white profuse fluid diarrhea. The outcome of acute typhus is in most cases lethal, after 10-15 days.

Subacute and chronic development

Such forms of disease progression are characteristic of 2-3 week old birds and adult chickens. Chickens begin to lose weight gain, become inactive, are lagging in development. If you treat birds with antibiotics, most chickens recover from the disease.

In adult broilers, the symptoms of pullorosis are not observed, the disease proceeds without any particular clinical signs. Only periodically can you note a change in egg production in the direction of decrease. Some individuals are characterized by sluggish conditions, reduced appetite. With the exacerbation of typhus recorded cases of thirst, shortness of breath. Layers develop peritonitis. With the manifestation of pullorosis in broilers, lameness and the appearance of arthritis are noted, in the birds the knee joints swell. Mortality rates among adult broilers are no more than 5%, if in time they begin to heal.

As a result of the developing in the body of pulloz at the opening of embryos, young and adult individuals, pathological changes of the internal organs are observed:

  • enlarged liver, spleen and gall bladder filled with dark green bile,
  • accumulation of white urate salts in the rectum,
  • the presence of foci of necrosis in the lung tissue, heart,
  • inflammatory processes in the intestines,
  • presence of follicular inflammations.

In accordance with the obtained epizootological data, veterinarians make a diagnosis taking into account the clinical signs, the age of the bird, obtained by the pathoanatomical studies. The final diagnosis is made in the presence of bacteriological studies of fresh avian carcasses or in vivo diagnosis of adults by a blood-droplet reaction.

Medical and preventive measures

One of the most effective tools for the prevention of pullorosis is a bacteriophage, administered orally at a dose of 2 ml. It is entered twice with an interval of 2 days. On the third day, this drug is used as an injection subcutaneously in a volume of 0.5 ml.

Treatment of diseased individuals is carried out with the use of drugs of the antibiotic group, including:

  • Furazolidone mixed with feed at 0.04-0.06% for 15 days with repeated treatment after a 3-5 day break,
  • less toxic furidin with a dosage of 200 mg per 1 kg of weight added to the feed for 10 days,
  • Sulphadimezine, which is widely used as an additive to feed and drinking water, in a volume of up to 1% for 2 weeks, repeated over an interval of 2-3 days,
  • complex avidox and colimycin.

In case of detection of cases of pullorosis-typhus and the final diagnosis set by the veterinary service, the decision of the region's executive authority makes a decision to declare an unfavorable situation and proceed to restrictive measures for breeding chickens and poults, comprehensive treatment and slaughter are carried out.

Symptoms of an acute form of pullorosis

Pull-out chicks are detected at 3–7 days after purchase, according to the following characteristics:

  • A weakness develops.
  • The coordination of chick movement is impaired.
  • Paws apart, forever lowered.
  • Chickens breathe open beak.
  • No appetite.
  • Digestion is frustrated, white bacterial diarrhea of ​​mucosal consistency develops. The secretions glue down and clog the cloaca.

If the chickens recover, they are stunted. However, by 4–5 months of recovering pullets it is difficult to distinguish from healthy ones.

Symptoms of permanent pullorosis

Pullorosis is manifested in broiler chickens over 15 days of age, characterized by developmental delay, slow operability, and digestive disorders. Additional signs of the disease are arthritis, the bird is lame. The following symptoms are observed in laying hens:

  • Periodic drop in egg production. She can recover and decline again.
  • Scallops pale, and then turn blue.
  • Loss of appetite.
  • Depressed.
  • Periodically there are diarrheas.
  • Droop chicken belly.
  • Exhaustion.
  • Yolk peritonitis. Accurate diagnosis can be made in the post-mortem inspection.

Pathological changes

The following postmortem changes are characteristic of pullorosis:

  • In embryos frozen before hatching, a green-colored yolk is detected.
  • The main hallmark of pullorosis in dead chickens is considered to be the detection of non-dissolving yolk. Usually, the chick uses nutrients to 5-7 days of existence. Sometimes the remains of the yolk sac are found in chickens killed at four weeks of age.
  • In the cesspool find white droppings.
  • The chicken intestines are inflamed, with small hemorrhages.
  • On the internal organs are small-sized foci of necrosis.
  • The gallbladder is full of dark green contents.
  • The layers of follicles, intestinal adhesions, inflammation of the oviduct are found in layers. Sometimes the contents of the follicle pours into the abdominal cavity, yolk peritonitis develops.

Diagnostics

When identifying the causes of the disease take into account the following factors:

  • Epizootic situation.
  • Clinical signs.
  • Laboratory research.

Chick predisposition to the disease occurs when a gross violation of the rules of zoohygiene and veterinary sanitation, aggravated by errors in feeding. The clinical symptoms discussed above.

Laboratory research

A final diagnosis requires bacteriological analysis of the corpses of 5–10 chicks or 30 frozen embryos. The isolated microbial cultures are identified by specific sera. Repair pullets and adult layers are examined in their daily life of 50–55 days and upon reaching 45% of egg production with the help of specific tests for KRKKA or KKRNGA. To exclude false positive responses, feed fats and animal feed are excluded from the diet 4 days prior to testing, and drugs are removed from the diet for 10 days.

When diagnosing a disease, pathologies with similar symptoms should be excluded:

If the diagnosis of pullorosis of chickens is confirmed, the sick individuals are destroyed and the conditionally healthy are subjected to drug treatment. It should be borne in mind that without improving feeding, as well as zoohygienic conditions, any treatment will be ineffective.

Admission to the sale of eggs derived from chickens fed antibiotics is prohibited. Therefore, chickens should be treated, given that it is impossible to eat meat during forced slaughter. But, if the eggs are intended for incubation, then such therapy is allowed in the breeding-plant for the parent flock of hens.

In outbreaks of pullorosis chickens in poultry enterprises practice complex treatment with a combination of Biomitsin and Furazolidone. In order not to cause the formation of tetracycline-resistant types of Salmonella, the antibiotic is used for no more than 5 days. Then it is replaced with Furasolidone for the same period. The drug is effective, but toxic, has contraindications, therefore, after 5 days, tetracycline is returned. In addition to the described method of treatment of pullorosis, other drugs are used.

Fluoroquinolones

In the poultry industry use antimicrobial agents for internal use. The following medicines are in demand:

All veterinary fluoroquinolones release liquid. In accordance with the instructions, the preparations are diluted with water - 0.5–1 cm 3 per 1 dm 3, depending on the concentration of the active substance represented by Enrofloxacin. Calculate the required amount of fluid consumed by chickens for the entire course of treatment - 5-6 days and pump the drug into the watering system.

The Russian drug Enromag is deprived of certain auxiliary components characteristic of foreign analogues. Therefore, the treatment solution is required to be changed daily.

Tetracyclines

Biomitsin possesses curative activity. Like Kolimitsin, it is drunk to chickens 5–7 days in a row, 5–10 mg / kg. Effective against bacterial contagia, but recommended for viral as well as protozoal infections because it inhibits synergistic microflora. Biovit has medical and growth-promoting properties for chickens.

Levomycetin

The medicine is popular among fans. It destroys salmonella and other microorganisms that cause intestinal diseases. Professionals do not use it because of the inconvenience of use - the drug must be fed three times a day. With pullorosis, an analogue of Levomycetin - Floricol, which is fed to chicks at a concentration of 0.1, is demanded, and chickens over 4 weeks old - 0.02%.

Sulfanilamides

The first day of the use of drugs given in a double dose with food or water. They inhibit the development of Salmonella and microflora associated with coccidia, so they are used in Eymerioze. Sulfanilamides in their pure form are rarely used, but they are the active active ingredients of many complex antimicrobial agents used in the treatment of pullorosis.

Compound preparations

When pullorosis most often use the following drugs:

  • Eriprim Powder for oral administration. It is administered with feed for chickens or water for drinking. Contains 2 antibiotics and two sulfanilamides.

The best solution is considered simultaneous feeding of antimicrobial agents with vitamins.

Control measures

If more than 1% of the birds have salmonellosis, the farm is considered unsuccessful. Introduce the following prohibitions:

  • Реализация племенного яйца для других птицеферм.
  • Отправка товарного яйца в торговые сети.
  • Инкубацию внутри птицефабрики яиц из корпусов, признанных неблагополучными.

В хозяйство разрешено завозить здоровый суточный молодняк из свободного от пуллороза предприятия. Incubation of eggs from prosperous buildings for their own consumption is not prohibited. Heat treatment kills Salmonella, so products obtained from sick birds are allowed for the preparation of confectionery.

In breeding reproducers the following categories of chickens are subject to slaughter:

  • Clinically ill.
  • All individuals of the corpus in which positive reactions of the CCRA were registered with pullorosis confirmed by baccalysis.

Waste from incubation, as well as dead bodies of poultry, is destroyed by incineration or processed into meat and pepper meal. Cabinets for chicks are cleaned and disinfected. Restrictions are removed in case of negative results of the CCRA and bacanalysis, subject to the final disinfection.

Prevention

On poultry farms, 50-55-day-old chickens and seven-month-old, or 45% of the hens that have reached productivity, are being studied. Strictly observe the points of poultry farming technology. Organize proper nutrition of chickens with good-quality compound feeds, while observing zoohygienic parameters and veterinary and sanitary rules. Hatchery and rooms for poultry are disinfected in a timely manner.

For lovers who purchase chicks for breeding in their own backyard, you should follow the recommendations listed below:

  • Buy stock from reliable suppliers.
  • Together with the chickens, it is necessary to purchase starter feed and additives offered by them from the seller. Or buy these products in a specialty store.
  • Carefully study the rules for the maintenance and feeding of chicks and follow them.

Poultry farming is a high-tech industry, regardless of the type of economy. In order for the enterprise to become profitable, the poultry farmer must take a responsible approach to raising chickens, ensure comfort, organize full feeding and protect against infections.

Common signs of infectious diseases

An experienced chicken house can determine the state of their health by the appearance of chickens and other domestic birds.

Having noticed a sick individual, it is urgently separated from healthy relatives to stop the spread of infection.

External signs on which the owner allocates the sick bird look like this:

  • In birds infected with infectious diseases, body temperature rises. This does not mean that it is necessary to run around the chicken coop with a thermometer. A bird with a fever is sluggish, sits for a long time in one place with its wings down, often closes its eyes and looks sleepy.
  • You should carefully examine the birds and chickens that look disheveled. If they have reddened mucous membranes, and the cavity of the nose and mouth are filled with viscous mucus, then we are talking about an infectious disease. In addition, in this case, it can be observed that the sick bird often shakes its head and tries to wipe the mucus from its beak against the feathers. This behavior gives the effect of ruffled feather cover.
  • You should always pay attention to individuals whose feathers and down are polluted from behind. This may indicate that diarrhea began in chickens and adult chickens. In addition, the diseased individual has a decrease in appetite, or a complete rejection of food.

Having identified and isolated from the general population of sick birds, you can apply for veterinary care and begin their treatment.

Sedentary chicken - the first sign of illness

What is pullorosis?

The ability to determine the general signs of infection of chickens can help to save the livestock of the chicken coop from the common disease - pullorosis. Speaking about this problem, veterinarians often use the names of bird typhoid, pullorosis-typhoid, white diarrhea, white bacillary diarrhea. As you already understood, we are talking about the same disease, which most often affects chickens, but can also occur in broilers and in other adult chickens. The cause of pullorosis is Salmonella pullorum bacterium, the most susceptible to it is the number of chickens, whose age does not exceed twenty days. According to statistics, pullorosis develops in 60% of cases. In broilers and other types of adult chickens, inflammation of the ovaries and the appearance of yolk peritonitis are manifested. Sometimes in adult birds, the disease is asymptomatic.

Patients on pullorosis chickens often stumble

Historical retreat

Pullorosis is known to poultry farmers for more than 100 years. For the first time its pathogen is described in 1900. The first name of the pathogen is Bacillus pullorum; upon further study, the bacterium was attributed to the genus Salmonella, which has about 2500 variants. It is an infectious disease in all countries where poultry farming is widely developed. Unfortunately, farms suffer great economic damage, since pullorosis is rapidly spreading, and is manifested not only in meat and eggs of diseased birds, but also in chickens hatched from these eggs.

Healthy chickens are active and agile.

Symptoms of pullorosis

The first days of young stockings require special attention. It is during this period that pullorosis is especially dangerous for the livestock of the house. Symptoms, which should be paid attention to the staza, look like this:

  • the young are going in groups
  • the chicks look drowsy, stand with their legs wide apart, draw their heads in, breathe heavily and drop their wings down,
  • chickens have great thirst,
  • diarrhea, feces whitish or greenish in color with mucus,
  • due to frequent bowel movements, the downstream gets dirty and glued to the back.

This is the so-called acute form of pullorosis, from which the young can die in 5-7 days. When chickens become infected at 2–3 weeks of age, the disease is subacute or becomes chronic. In this case, the development of young animals slows down, they grow more slowly. Patients move a little and suffer from periodic indigestion. Chickens that get sick during this period of life sometimes get better. Pullorosis in broilers or layers of adult age is expressed by lethargy, low appetite, discoloration of the ridge, which pales. Mortality in adults from pullorosis actually does not happen.

Active chicks are always healthy

Patterns of disease development (epizootology)

Pullorosis can occur not only in chickens, but also in turkeys, pheasants, pigeons, sparrows, crows and guinea fowls. The most likely manifestation in the first 5 days of life. From the age of 20 days, the number of infected chickens decreases dramatically; after 45 days of life, the infection is sporadic (random). The most common pullorosis gets in dysfunctional farms. It is here that there is a clear lack of infection control measures, which leads to the stationary nature of the disease. In dysfunctional farms, signs of damage by pullorosis are observed in individuals of different generations of birds.

The main source of infection is sick chickens. Isolation of the pathogen occurs together with droppings. Once in the environment, the fixed sticks of the Salmonella Pullorum can maintain viability in the litter for up to three months.

Once in the soil, the same pathogen is viable for up to a year, and on the shell of eggs - about 30 days. Adults that have become carriers of the infection secrete the pathogen during periods of exacerbation, which leads to infection of the rest of the population of chickens. With insufficient compliance with sanitary standards and the absence of timely treatment, the spread of infection among broilers and layers is unavoidable, because the pathogen enters the digestive tract when feed is consumed, and through infected litter and litter.

Healthy chickens with fluffy feathers

Pullorosis can have embryonic distribution. This is due to infection by the sick bird of the eggs. In this case, the infection can occur at any stage of formation, but the most likely way is to infect the yolk in a hematogenous manner. In incubators, 25 to 50% of the chickens hatch from infected eggs, the rest die. The main factors influencing the resistance (resistance) of the young to the disease are:

  • failure to comply with the temperature regime (overheating, overcooling),
  • high density of young stock
  • unbalanced and untimely feeding.

From this we can conclude that with sufficient care for the young, the likelihood of mass infection is lower, and its treatment will be more successful. Since pullorosis is observed not only in poultry, wild animals living in nature and rodents can be carriers.

The origin of the disease (pathogenesis)

When the pullorosis pathogen enters the body, the production of exotoxins begins. This leads to intoxication of embryos and already hatched chickens. The nature of the lesions may be different. Much depends on the age of the birds, and on the complexity of the course of the disease. The mortality of the chickens in the first few days of life may not reveal macroscopic pathologies in the tissues, because the course of the disease was very fast. Chronic forms of the disease in a later period of life, cause multiple necrotic changes in the tissues of internal organs, since intoxication occurs slowly. Most often, the changes relate to the intestines, which inflame and undergo hemorrhages. In many cases, an increase in the spleen and liver is recorded, which changes the normal color to clay-yellow. Salt deposits are found in the kidneys and ureters of dead chickens. In meat breeds of chickens, hybrid types of broilers, lameness additionally joins the symptoms of pullorosis. There is swelling of the limbs in the knee joints, and feathers may fall out. Broilers die from pullorosis in 5% of cases, mostly at 2-5 weeks of age.

Infection can occur both in the embryo stage and after hatching from the egg.

Principles of diagnosis

In addition to visual observation of the state of the livestock and pathological-anatomical studies of dead individuals, it is necessary to conduct laboratory tests. This is usually a microscopy and culture of pathological material from fresh corpses. Determination of the causative agent of the disease occurs with the help of Salmonella serum. The final diagnosis of "pullorosis" is made only when the selection of the sowing S pullorum. As with infections caused by other Salmonella species, the condition of the internal organs is too similar.

Ways to treat pullorosis

For the success of the treatment, the response rate of the owner of the house to changes in the behavior of chickens or chickens, and other disturbing symptoms is very important. After conducting laboratory tests, the treatment is carried out with a course of antibiotics or sulfa drugs. Take into account the sensitivity of the pathogen to the proposed drug.

In large farms and in poultry farms, sick and weakened chickens are destroyed, the rest are treated and prevented with nitrofuran preparations and antibiotics.

The specific treatment for pullorosis has not been developed; therefore, various combinations of drugs that suppress the growth of microorganisms are prescribed. Most drugs are added to the water. But in large farms with outbreaks of pullorosis, aerosol treatment of eggs is used before laying in the incubator. Antibiotic treatment is performed in 5-7 day courses, which results in a reduction in bird mortality. However, no antibiotic is able to completely overcome S pullorum. That is why the main thing is not the treatment, but the prevention of the incidence of livestock.

Large flock of chickens - risk factor

Distribution and vectors

The disease is recorded in all countries.

The offspring of infected individuals during the formation of eggs in the ovaries of sick birds, chickens born to infected individuals infect healthy offspring. The disease is characterized by stationarity.

Disease transmission can be carried out through infected eggs and incubators, water, feed, droppings of sick birds, unfertilized eggs, shells, objects for the care of sick birds, and spreading are also promoted by roosters.

The vectors are small rodents, sparrows, starlings, tits, bullfinches, daws and other free-living birds.

Degree of danger and damage

Without taking effective measures to eliminate acute outbreaks of pullorosis-typhoid, the disease affects all birds, the incidence of young offspring reaches 70%, for them pullorosis-typhoid is the most dangerous.

Lethal outcome for poultry is 80%if time does not take therapeutic and preventive measures.

Salmonella, which enter the human body through the meat of sick birds, cause acute intestinal poisoning, accompanied by high fever, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, and intoxication.

Patients with salmonellosis are hospitalized to infectious departments.

Pathogens

The disease causes Salmonellapullorum-Gallinarum (Salmonella pullorum-gallinarum) - bacteria that are short (1-2 microns long and 0.3-0.8 microns thick) fixed sticks, they do not form capsules or spores.

In the litter of sick birds, bacteria persist for up to 100 days, in the soil - more than 400 days, in water - up to 200 days, they can also persist in the dead bodies of sick individuals (up to 40 days).

Bacteria at room temperature indoors retain biological properties for 7 years, but high temperatures destroy them. So at a temperature of 60 ° C, bacteria are destroyed in half an hour, up to 100 ° C - in 1 minute, while cooking eggs - in 8 minutes.

Naturally resistant Salmonella is extremely sensitive to chemical attack, they are destroyed by formaldehyde, bleach, carbolic acid solutions.

Symptoms in different course

In the acute course of the disease in birds are observed:

  • excretion of white faeces
  • depression,
  • diarrhea,
  • lack of coordination of movements,
  • nervousness,
  • coma,
  • lethargy,
  • power failure,
  • glued fluff near the cloaca,
  • the omission of the wings.

Symptoms of subacute course:

  • poor plumage
  • boiler foot inflammation,
  • impaired digestion
  • labored breathing,
  • elevated temperature to (45 ° C).

Chronic course:

  • growth delay
  • developmental delay
  • peritonitis (gall or fibrin),
  • salpingitis,
  • hyperthermia,
  • thirst,
  • lack of appetite,
  • weakness.

The incubation period is up to 20 days. The peculiarity lies in the fact that birds that have suffered a disease receive immunity and are not infected again.

Treatment and Prevention

Basic measures:

  • transfer of sick individuals and weakened chickens for slaughter.
  • isolation of young individuals from infected.
  • proper feeding of domestic birds, corresponding to their age and appearance.
  • treatment and preventive measures in relation to healthy individuals, namely, the use of a complex method, which consists in combining drugs of the furan series (sulfanilamide) in combination with antibiotics (chlortetracycline hydrochloride, tetracycline and others). The most effective drugs are furazolidone and furaltadone.
  • monthly carrying out a blood-and-agglutination reaction until a negative result is obtained.
  • maintaining the hygiene of the premises where the birds and incubators are kept, their regular cleaning and disinfection.
  • Carcases of bacilli carriers can be used in the food industry if they do not have clinical signs.

To prevent and eliminate infection, comprehensive therapeutic and preventive measures, bacteriological studies and the destruction of infected individuals should be carried out.

Who is more prone to infection

Pullorosis suffers all agricultural birds, including waterfowl. Most often the disease occurs in broilers, at least - in laying hens.

The disease among young birds is embryonic: an infection through infected eggs is transmitted to young animals. This distribution option occurs in half of all cases.

The frequency of the disease depending on age:

  • 5-7-day-old feathered babies get sick often, symptoms last up to 20 days, usually they end in death,
  • 20-day and older patients are less likely to get sick, and the illness itself becomes chronic or subacute.

Ways of transmission:

  • A sick bird and a sick carrier bring the bacilli along with the droppings into the habitat,
  • The penetration of the virus into the eggs comes from the intestines of sick birds through the shell,
  • Through food stained with droppings, bedding, equipment, drinking,
  • Through raw clothing staff,
  • Dried pieces of litter are in the air,
  • When feeding badly discarded slaughter waste,
  • Sparrows, pigeons, jackdaws are also carriers.

The occurrence of typhoid fever is preceded by a number of factors that reduce the body's immunity. Chicken susceptibility has inadequate feeding, overheating and overcooling, overcrowding.

If the chickens have high immunity and the breeder is monitoring the content of the poultry, then they can avoid the disease even when eating infected feed.

Makarov Ivan Vasilyevich

Hereditary poultry farmer, owner of a poultry farm, graduated from St. Petersburg State Agrarian University with honors, the author of articles in specialized publications

What is this disease

The term pullorosis (Pullorosis) is commonly understood as an infectious disease of chickens that affects the intestines, parenchymal organs, and also contributes to the degeneration of ovarian follicles in adults.

In Europe, the disease is more often diagnosed in adult birds, but in the United States, recently hatchlings suffered from it. For a long time, such features of the course of pullorosis were perceived by poultry farmers as two separate problems with their names: “chicken fever” and “white diarrhea of ​​chickens”.

This division has long been encountered even in authoritative sources, but later scientists were able to prove the presence of a common pathogen.Today, this disease is fixed in almost every part of the globe, but more often it affects the chickens.

Pathogen and pathogenesis

The causative agent of this disease is Salmonella pullorum gallinosum - “g-shaped”, fixed stick with rounded ends.

The transmission of the disease occurs from a sick bird to a healthy one in the following ways:

  • through the feces (the pathogen retains its vital activity for 100 days),
  • the soil in the hen house (Salmonella pullorum gallinosum can stay for 400 days),
  • with direct contact between birds.

Once in the bird's body, the pathogen activates the production of exotoxins, which lead to direct intoxication of both embryos and chicks that have already appeared. The features of the lesion in each case may differ, because a lot depends on the age of chickens and the complexity of the course of the disease. So, with the death of two-or three-day chickens, it is not possible to determine the presence of the pathogen in the tissues, because the course of pullorosis was too rapid. At a later age, chronic forms usually lead to pathological changes in the tissues of the internal organs, which is explained by slow intoxication.

Internal changes often affect the intestines (there may be both inflammation and hemorrhage), spleen and liver, and the latter even changes color, becoming clay-yellow.

When examining the kidneys and ureters of dead chickens, salt accumulation can be detected, and lameness are additionally diagnosed in meat breeds and broiler hybrids. Studying the symptoms of the disease helps to determine which form it belongs to, which greatly simplifies the task of treating it. Consider the possible varieties more closely.

Fulminant

The rapid development of the disease does not always lead to death, but even the recovered chickens for a long time will lag behind their fellow tribesmen in growth.

The main signs of illness in this case are:

  • fast growing weakness
  • violation of coordinated movements of chickens,
  • widely placed paws and drooping eyelids,
  • breathing through the open beak,
  • lack of appetite,
  • problems with digestion and the appearance of bacterial secretions of the mucous consistency (usually glue down fluff and clog the cloaca).
Of course, at the very first symptoms, the diseased individuals are isolated from the rest of the population and begin treatment.

Permanent

This type of pullorosis usually affects young animals after two weeks of life.

The characteristic symptoms of the disease in this case include:

  • slow growth and development
  • slow operability
  • loss of appetite
  • blanching combs
  • depressed appearance
  • exhaustion
  • sagging belly
  • indigestion

At older age, laying hens may experience a sudden drop in egg production. With the development of the disease for a long time, the bird often has arthritis, manifested by lameness.

Manifest

As a result of the development of manifest type of pullorosis, the following pathological-anatomical changes in the body of a bird are characteristic:

  • white litter in cesspool,
  • inflamed intestines with small hemorrhages in it,
  • clearly visible foci of necrosis on internal organs,
  • dark green substance in the gallbladder,
  • degeneration of follicles, spike in the intestine and inflammation of the oviduct in layers,
  • sometimes the contents of the follicles are poured into the abdominal cavity, due to which yolk peritonitis develops.
  • nestlings frozen in the egg before hatching are diagnosed with a compacted green yolk,
  • in the dead hatching chickens, an unabsorbed yolk is often found (sometimes its remains are noticeable in a four-week dead bird).

Almost all of these changes can be detected only after the death of the bird as a result of its opening.

How and what to treat chickens pullorosis

With the timely diagnosis of the disease chickens and adult chickens can be cured, and for this they use the most diverse groups of drugs. Compositions of the levomycetin group, polymyxins, tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones, sulfonamides, have proven themselves well. In addition, veterinarians often prescribe and compound drugs, including several funds at once.

Polymyxin

One of the most effective and affordable drugs in this group is Kolimitsin - it destroys not only Salmonella, but also a number of other gram-negative bacteria, in particular, resistant to the action of tetracyclines, streptomycin, and Levomycetin.

The method of application is similar to the previous version (soluble in water), and as for the dosage, then 5-10 mg of the active substance should fall on 1 kg of live weight. The course of treatment is 5-7 days.

Preventive measures

Any disease is easier to prevent than to engage in its treatment, therefore, in private farmsteads, and in conditions of mass breeding of chickens, in order to prevent the development of pullorosis, it is worth adhering to some preventive requirements.

In terms of poultry farms it is:

  • regular inspection of livestock, starting from the time of chicks hatching,
  • full examination at 50-55 days of age or after reaching 45% of productivity,
  • feeding poultry only using high-quality feed and meeting all sanitary and hygienic requirements,
  • timely disinfection of the room and hatchery using safe for poultry substances.
Video: chicken disease preventionIf you breed chickens in private farms, then, first of all, you should adhere to the following recommendations:
  • Buy chicks (or eggs for incubation) should only be from proven breeders, preferably with documented health of their poultry,
  • together with the chickens, it is better to immediately buy food with vitamin supplements to which they are accustomed (transfer to other feed should be gradual),
  • replacement of feed and water at the initial stages of cultivation should be carried out several times a day with the mandatory removal of all scattered food residues,
  • if there are already chickens in the house, new arrivals for a while should be settled separately in a clean room until they grow up and get stronger,
  • Do not allow chickens to contact wild birds: they are carriers of various diseases, in particular, pullorosis,
  • when taking care of chickens, it is advisable to change shoes and clothes in order not to introduce infection mechanically,
  • whenever possible, young animals are better vaccinated.

Of course, pullorosis is an unpleasant disease, but it is not a sentence for the entire population. Timely diagnosis will help to avoid serious consequences, and regular prevention with the observance of all precautions is likely to completely eliminate the possibility of its occurrence.

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