Cultivation of the land, the cultivation of vegetables and fruits at the dacha plots is perhaps a favorite activity for villagers and owners of country land. And what kind of Russian cellar goes without home-made seals? In France, they store wine, and in our country barrels of pickled apples and sauerkraut, three-liter rows of compotes and pickles, slender rows of jars of salads and jam. And all this culinary splendor, gleaming with glass sides, is traditionally collected from its gardens and orchards. Just because it is more useful, without GMOs and nitrates. After all, the hostess can vouch for food grown by herself.
The phrase "garden design" sounds a bit unusual. Land is cultivated for practical use, and there is almost no time left for aesthetics. However, fashion has come to us to create beauty everywhere and in everything. Even a vegetable garden can look like a work of art, decorated by a designer with a delicate taste. Vegetable paradise and fruit trees require a clear distinction between zones and additional decorations. Arbors, fences, garden paths, fountains, flower beds and greenhouses can play their role. Let's try to figure out how to create a garden design with your own hands without the help of professionals.
The design of the garden and garden should be focused on its main function - the cultivation of vegetables and fruits. Accordingly, the decoration should make the summer farm not only a beautiful spot on the landscape, but also a convenient platform for the riot of vegetation that will grow on it.
The main purpose of the design is to systematize the beds, areas for shrubs, garden areas, the greenhouse complex or the greenhouse, recreation areas. The garden design is developed on the basis of the already existing stylistic picture of the site. It is previously embodied in the general landscape design. The latter combines the design of a house or cottage, courtyard, playground, garage, bath and other outbuildings that are located in properties.
How to choose a place in the garden
Experienced gardeners advise first of all to pay attention to the nature of the area. You can not have beds on a slope, in a valley or vice versa on a hill. In each of the options will have problems with moisture: its excess or lack of. The optimal solution for the location of the garden is plain. Also pay attention to the degree of illumination of the site by the sun. In order for plants not to experience a lack of natural light, they must bask under it at least 8-10 hours a day. The next step is to analyze the soil, which will help determine its acidity and type (sand, loam, sandy, clay).
Depending on the nature of the soil, not only a suitable place is chosen, but also the types of plants that will take root on it. In the early years, the garden economy did not occupy an area by area. First, for beginners it is easier to care for a small section. Secondly, the gardener will take time to assess the yield, to determine the correctness of the choice made. Initially, the beds give a simple rectangular shape, and between them leave small paths. The full planning and arrangement should begin after two or three years. It is easier to move test beds than to move a solid “interior” of a vegetable garden.
Garden design with garden beds
Each piece of land on which they grow a particular type of plant is called a bed. Initially, their height does not exceed 10-20 cm. It is more difficult to care for lowlands, but if necessary they are easier to move. After a couple of years, their height is freely increased to 50 cm. Planning beds is a breaking up of a vegetable garden into separate separate areas. In the design there is even a special word that designate such actions: zoning. A strict system is necessary not only so that you can move freely between the beds. Some plants in close proximity can interfere with and inhibit the growth of each other.
Try to make the beds versatile, so that they are suitable for growing different plants. Every two or three years, their green “inhabitants” need to be swapped, since the soil for them becomes too scarce. The versatility of the beds will not worry about the constant transfer of protective structures.
Comfortable beds - how and from what can be done
The beds are conventionally divided into two types: ready-made and hand-made. The first option is suitable for those who have no time to engage in the construction of structures. To choose the right material in the store, carefully read the description of the product, the approximate timing of its operation. Pay special attention to its toxicity. Wood - the easiest option for those who decided to make the beds themselves. It is easy to clean, environmentally friendly and easy to install. However, so that the tree does not rot prematurely, before constructing the structure, be sure to impregnate it with a special solution that will prolong the material's lifetime.
After the bed is ready, it is painted in the desired color and thereby ennobles the appearance of the whole garden economy. Brick and cement mortar create more monumental designs. They are established only if the place under the beds has passed the test of time, and solid boundaries are required. Without the use of cement mortar, the bricks are simply laid out obliquely at each other and partially dig into the ground for reliability. The most budget option consider ordinary bottles. Plastic or glass - the choice for the designer. The first ones are simply strung on metal pins that are dug into the ground in the manner of a miniature stocking. Glass containers can also be stuck with their necks in the ground, or laid out in orderly rows on their side and secured with cement.
Beds can be made from other available tools: pieces of slate, polycarbonate, metal mesh, ceramic tiles.
How to combine plants in the garden
Vegetables and flowers live by their own rules, and some of their duets are particularly productive. So, for example, calendula is recommended to be planted near the gooseberry, raspberry, currant. A flower with a strong smell will protect shrubs from encroachments of the main weedy pest - bindweed. Although the plant looks beautiful, it tends to stubbornly creep forward with the determination of the invader, who braids everything in its path.
With greens (parsley, dill, lettuce) are well combined onion (daffodils, tulips). Fruitful cooperation is obtained marigolds and carrots. Potatoes and cabbage with nasturtiums get along quite well. In addition to the useful neighborhood there is also beautiful. Organically look irises and peonies surrounded by rows with beets or celery. Do not recommend planting peas with onions, tomatoes and potatoes side by side. Dill with carrot and beans with bell pepper also nourish strong dislike for each other.
Registration of beds with spicy herbs
Spicy herbs used to be successfully combined with lettuce, parsley and cabbage. Now a fashion has come to us for combining fragrant plants with flowers in decorative flowerbeds. As a rule, they are used for brewing tea, as a seasoning or home remedy. Spicy herbs look beautiful, exude a pleasant smell and sometimes even scare them of pests.
Actually the creation of round beds, which are divided into equal sectors inside. Each of them is sown with a certain kind of spicy herbs. Also create multi-tiered compositions that are decorated with natural stone. Spice is planted in brick and wooden beds not only in the garden, but also near the house on the yard territory. They give home gardens a well-groomed and stylish, modern look.
Previously, greenhouse frames were made of wood, which was covered with a transparent film. The material quickly lost its “presentation” and came to a complete disrepair. In our time, polycarbonate has come to replace the film, and the structures have become more complex. They necessarily include full hinged doors and windows on both sides, which provide the necessary ventilation.
Under the designer greenhouse means not only a functional unit, but also the decoration of the landscape picture of the site. The construction itself can be considered as a separate art object. They create such greenhouses according to their own author's drawings, or draw ideas from special sources. It is noteworthy that the more complex the form of shelter for delicate plants, the more original the whole area will look, in which a special highlight will appear.
Flower beds can be constructed from any available means. Old buckets, basins, barrels, baskets and even umbrellas are used. Flower rows are decorated with stones, bricks, wood, slate, bottles and gabions. Designs can be flat or have several tiers, each of which will grow different flowers. Dressing flower beds, perhaps the most creative process in all landscape design. Do not be limited to a garden. Flowerbeds are used as decoration and zoning of the entire precinct area, including the home territory.
Berry Bushes Hedge
Berry bushes not only look beautiful, but also give a tasty harvest, which is successfully used for making jam and in compote cooking. In suburban areas usually grow blueberries, gooseberries, raspberries, blackberries, currants, honeysuckle, barberry, Japanese quince. Berry bushes are easy to maintain and have proven themselves as a hedge.
Decorative green "fence" can decorate the garden or the facade of the house. To make it yourself, simply plant a row of shrubs at intervals to reserve in case they spread out wide. Over time, the fence will have to cut and give it a certain shape so that the green “fence” looks neat and well-groomed.
Gardening is considered by many to be a simpler occupation than gardening. Although trees require the same reverent care as the plants in the garden beds. Usually, the garden and the garden are not complete without each other, and sometimes they are successfully combined in one zone of the summer cottage. When arranging trees, they also focus on the soil composition and topography.
A “dead zone” is necessarily created around everyone, which is sown with neutral clover or lawn grass. Other plants may deprive too much of a young tree that has not yet been strengthened. In addition, falling fruits will cause damage to neighbors "from the bottom." Over time, the tree will grow, its root system grows stronger, and the crown will create more and more shadows. Bottom, in any case, nothing will grow except weeds and ordinary grass.
To avoid the proliferation of the first, the area is planted with harmless, but aggressive to the neighbors mustard. In small areas, garden trees are located right between the beds. They simultaneously separate the individual zones, and serve as decoration. If the area allows, the garden land is located next to the garden on one side and with a platform for rest on the other.
Adhere to the golden rule, which states that the area of garden economy should be twice the size of the garden. This ratio is more easily perceived by the human eye.
Selection of plants and trees
As for the types of garden dwellers, it is recommended to select varieties for the local climate. For example, in middle latitudes, apple trees, plums, pears and cherries take root well. In places where a little warmer it is already possible to grow sweet cherries, apricots, walnuts and peaches. Also do not forget to add a couple of notes of coniferous "exotic" or Russian color: ate, pine, thuja, birch. Keep in mind that these trees grow to impressive size, so a couple of copies are enough away from home. Roses, magnolias, chubushniki are planted in the open garden grounds for decorative purposes. They will create a beautiful picture and add elegance to the landscape. You will want to look at a similar picturesque landscape without stopping.
House for garden tools
A house for gardening equipment is a small building in which shovels, rakes, hoes, watering cans and other means for the care of their land are stored. You can buy it ready or build it yourself. Do not recommend to build a house of brick and other material, which is characterized by monumentality.
Inventory is better to store in a light structure, which can be disassembled and replaced at any time with a fundamentally different one. So you can always slightly adjust the design of the garden. They build houses from wooden boards. All the work will take no more than one day. Inside it is imperative to have shelves and hooks so that the contents are kept in order. Have houses either directly near the garden, or next to the other outbuildings.
The garden design is an important step in the design of the landscape. Just because this site is steamed with a garden usually takes up to 60% of the total area. Such a vast area can not be ignored and left in the neglected form and utter confusion. Just try it, and the fascinating process of registration will delay your head.