A biennial herb of the boragekin family (Boraginaceae), up to 1 m high, with a spindle-shaped root.
The stalk is single, erect, thick, often branched, with red spots, like leaves, covered with long bristly hairs sitting on white tubercles.
Bottom leaves are collected in a rosette, spatulate-lanceolate, lower stem - oblong-lanceolate, narrowed at the petiole at the base, the rest narrowly linear, pointed, sessile, with one median vein, entire.
The flowers are bisexual, first pink, then blue, occasionally white, sessile or on very short pedicels, gathered in simple curls that form a large paniculate inflorescence, the rim is fluffy outside.
The fruit is dry, splits into 4 trihedral lumpy nuts, at the top of the pointed.
The bruise of an ordinary bloom in June-July, the fruits ripen in July-August.
It grows in weedy places, steam fields, dry slopes, along roads, on forest edges, on fallow lands.
ATTENTION! The plant is poisonous!
The healing properties of a bruise
The aqueous extract in the experiment has anti-hormonal, alcohol - curare-like effect. Roots (bark) show antibacterial and antifungal activity. The plant has expectorant, diuretic and sedative properties, the infusion of the aerial part in the experiment increases blood clotting, increases the number of leukocytes and lymphocytes.
Drugs, method of using bruise and dose
Contraindications and possible side effects of a bruise of ordinary
When used internally, care must be taken, because the whole plant contains alkaloids that paralyze the nervous system.
An overdose causes paralysis of the nervous system, therefore urgent hospitalization is required.
Carbohydrates, organic acids (citric, malic, succinic, fumaric), phenolcarboxylic acids are found in the roots, alkaloids (heliosupine, asperulin), organic acids (citric, malic, succinic, fumaric), phenolcarboxylic acids (lithopermic, cinnamic) in the aerial parts , in leaves - carbohydrates (glucose, fructose), organic acids and their derivatives, tartaric, malic, succinic, esters of malic and succinic acids, vitamin E and carotene, in flowers - carbohydrates (glucose, fructose, sucrose), in seeds - to 28% fatty oil.
The use of bruise ordinary in other areas
Flowers and roots give carmine-red paint for wool.
Aft for sheep.
The plant is especially valued as a honey plant that provides rich and long lasting bribes.
High quality honey, pleasant to the taste, thick, light amber color, but does not crystallize for a long time. One flower gives 0.8-2.5 mg of nectar with an average sugar content of 36%. From 1 ha. it turns out 200-300 kg. honey for the season, in particularly favorable years - up to 1 ton.
Bruise is cultivated in the forest parks, along the roads like a honey plant.
It can be found on the edges of the forest, along the roads, on the mountains, mountain slopes. This healing plant is poisonous because it contains alkaloids that paralyze the human nervous system.
Common bruise - a representative of the burachnik family. A biennial plant has an erect stem with red spots. It grows up to a meter in height. Its leaves are basal, collected in the outlet and covered with bristly hairs. Bruise flowers bisexual. At the beginning of flowering, they are pink, and then blue. The fruits of the plant appear in July, August. It propagates by seeds.
Harvesting and storage
The collection of this plant is produced in the flowering period, in June. Herbalists collect his leaves and flowers for medicinal purposes. Dry the raw materials in a natural way, but electric dryers can also be used. Then the finished medicinal raw materials will be placed in paper bags, which are recommended to be saved in dark places.
Application in everyday life
Previously, bruise flowers were used to dye wool fabrics to give them a red color. But the seeds are saturated with fatty oil, used in the manufacture of varnishes and paints.
The plant is also valuable as a honey plant attracting bees. Honey from the flowers of the plant is thick, pleasant to the taste, light amber. It remains liquid for a long time. The average sugar content in this type of honey is 36%. Usually, 200-300 kilograms of honey are produced per hectare of a bruise per season, sometimes this indicator is much larger.
Composition and medicinal properties
Common bruise contains in its composition poisons consolidatedin, cytoglossin. That is why the treatment of any drugs based on medicinal plants should be approached carefully.
There are in the plant and saponins, choline, ascorbic acid, beneficial to the body.
You can take alcohol extracts of a bruise only with the permission of an experienced herbalist or attending physician.
Bruise preparations based on ordinary bruises are an excellent expectorant. They are also used as a means of sedative action. In particular, we are talking about the use of plants in the treatment of epilepsy.
Aqueous bruise infusions are used as diuretic and sedatives. They help reduce cramps.
As for the external use of the plant, it is used in the treatment of rheumatism in the form of compresses, and also make lotions when stretching the tendons.
Leaf and bruise leaf extract is used as a drug that increases the number of lymphocytes and leukocytes in the blood, increasing its coagulability. The leaves of the plant have wound-healing properties, and the flowers relieve stomach cramps. Broths from the roots of a bruise ordinary are used as blood purifying and hemostatic agents. It is also known antitoxic effect of aqueous infusions of a medicinal plant.
Earlier in Russia, it was used as an antidote for snake bites in the form of applying a fresh plant to the wound.
The use of ordinary bruise in traditional medicine: recipes
Traditional healers have many secrets of recipes based on plants. Take advantage of them and you:
- Infusion for the treatment of wounds, bruises, rheumatism. Take a teaspoon of dry raw materials, fill it with one glass of boiling water, cover with a lid and soak for 40 minutes. After this time, filter. Tampons soaked in a healing liquid are applied for 5 minutes to the places of skin damage and areas of rheumatic pain.
- The use of infusion bruise in the treatment of cough. It is necessary to insist 10 grams of bruise grass in a glass of boiling water for two hours. After filtration, the liquid is drunk a tablespoon three times a day.
- Bruise from bites of poisonous snakes. It is necessary to take fresh grass of the plant, knead it before getting the juice and attach it to the wound. Vegetable compress should be changed after 10 minutes.
An ordinary bruise treatment must necessarily take place under the supervision of a physician. An overdose of the amount of herb specified in the recipes is fraught with slowing breathing and paralysis of nerve endings.
Every beekeeper should understand not only bees and honey varieties, but also honey-bearing flowers and pollen plants. One such plant is a bruise ordinary. Bruise is a biennial plant that reaches a height of as much as 1.5 meters. The plant blooms only in the second year and then terminates its life cycle. The bruise belongs to the family Burachnikov.
Although the plant is a honey plant, its flowers are still larger than those of other representatives.
- The flowering period lasts from May to July. At the beginning of flowering, the flowers of the bruise are pink, and by the end of the period they become bright blue.
- Casting plants are sessile, linear-shaped, the base is round.
- The flowers are collected in the inflorescence panicle.
- The rim can be of different colors, ranging from white to blue, funnel-shaped in shape.
There is another type of bruise, which is also used in traditional medicine as well as ordinary, it is a Russian bruise (rumen).
It reaches a height of no more than 50 cm, its flowers are similar to the ordinary form, but have a burgundy color. Russian bruise blossoms in another period - from June to August. In the wild, the plant is distributed in the Sakhalin region of Russia, Amur region, the European part of Russia and in Central Asia, particularly in the Tashkent and Samarkand regions.
The root system of the flower has a pronounced rod, which goes deep underground. Only the aerial part of the plant is used as a raw material.
But it is worth being careful: the bruise is a poisonous plant, as it contains choline, saponins, consolidated and cinoglossin.
Under natural conditions, the bruise prefers dry soils, steppes, and rocky places. It can take root in any place and does not require special care, so on the streets it can often be found right on the side of the road.
Large areas are not intentionally sown with a bruise, because this is a kind of weed, although it has useful properties. For a beekeeper, it will be a good addition to his apiary if it is sown with a bruise around.
The value of the flower for the beekeeper in the first place is the honey production itself.
Different sources provide different numbers, some claim that 300 kg of honey can be harvested per hectare, and some that as much as 800 kg. Professionals can confirm that this is a high figure for any honey flower.
All day the bees fly around the bruise and collect pollen and nectar. Even if the weather is unfavorable: wet and cold, it still does not affect its performance. Honey obtained from the plant bruise, can be stored for a long time, it can stay with bees all winter and will not crystallize. The color of honey turns out to be light amber; it is thick in texture and has a pronounced sweet taste and smell.
You can propagate the bruise yourself, choosing meadows and desert areas around the apiary.
But it is worth waiting for several years, as it will begin to spread on its own, as all weeds do. In a small apiary, in a few years, a pleasant result will be noticeable.
It is considered normal to sow about 4 kg of bruise seeds per hectare. In 10 grams of seeds there are about 3000 pieces. Seeds are very small and easy to plant. Seeds are laid to a depth of about 2 cm in spring or autumn. If planting occurs in the fall, then it should be done in warm weather and early in time, so that the first shoots can appear before the first cold weather. Even the poorest, it does not require any maintenance, spitting up or fertilizing.
It would seem, why engage in the cultivation of weed, but these questions disappear as soon as a person learns about his valuable qualities and medical production.
Before selecting seeds for cultivation, you need to be well acquainted with the climate of the region.
If you start planting in the fall, you should not wait for the cold, otherwise shoots will appear small and weak, and in winter they will simply die. To discard all the risks, it is better to wait for the spring, so that the plants are strong and survive the winter well.
The sowing period is not a matter of principle; May and even June may be the deadline:
- Any bruise will suit the ground, but the place is better to choose a more sunny and open.
- Since the grower has the right to choose, it is better to give preference to fertile, loose soil, the indicator of alkalinity should be weak or neutral. This will be the key to better flowering, and therefore honey and raw materials will be much more, which is the ultimate goal.
- You can sow the bruise seeds with your hands, but if the area is large, it is recommended to use a grass planter.
- Sowing should not be thick, only 5 kg of seeds are planted per hectare.
- Seeds are laid to a depth of 2-3 cm, and they begin to germinate at a temperature of at least +10 degrees. The most favorable temperature of air for flowering is from +20 to +30 degrees.
- In the future, the plant does not need any agrotechnical measures. But applying organic fertilizer will not harm him. If there is an opportunity and desire to make fertilizer, then as a result the bruise will please with lush flowering.
For the first year, the bruise will not bloom, since it is a biennial, so beekeepers simultaneously plant blues and phacelia or any other one-year-old honey plant. Thus, the bees will get the "soil" for the annual collection of honey without interruption. It is not necessary to water the bruise, it belongs to drought-resistant species. In the future, the flower is sown on its own and displaces the surrounding plants.
Despite the fact that the plant is read poisonous, it is widely used in traditional medicine.
The raw material used is the aerial part of the plant, that is, the leaves and flowers. They are collected at the very beginning of flowering, when the flowers are still pinkish, then they have the most valuable components.
The main substances in the composition are:
A decoction of dry raw materials used in various diseases.
For example, a mixture of flowers and leaves is used as a sedative and expectorant. Broth recipe: 1 dessert spoon of dry raw material is poured 200 ml of water and put on a small fire. After 20 minutes, the broth must be filtered and pressed. Take 1/3 cup 3 times a day.
External bruising is useful for:
It is very important not to allow overdose by the plant, since it is poisonous, so if such treatment does not produce results or unpleasant side effects appear, stop taking and consult a doctor.
Additional properties of the bruise are calming the nervous system, reducing the number of seizures, removing toxins from the body.
Infusion of herbs used in epilepsy and the bite of a poisonous snake. Another important property of the plant is hemopuretic, but for this purpose only bruise roots are used. Its roots also have antibacterial and antifungal properties. Even scientific medicine has not passed the bruise and recommends its use with a strong cough, in particular whooping cough.
More information can be found in the video.
Anyone practicing beekeeping should understand honey plants and pollen plants .
If the apiary is located on the same place all year round, then it is called stationary. It is not always possible to choose a place for a stationary apiary, because many people have inherited plots, houses and villas where bees are located.
However, the beekeeper still needs to continuously monitor the honey-bearing vegetation within a radius of two kilometers around his apiary. If the honey base is weak around the place where the apiary is located, then undoubtedly, in order to get a sufficient output of marketable honey, you need to bring the bees directly to the fields and forests where the bees can get enough nectar and pollen.
There is one plant honey plant, which is rarely specially planted over large areas, as it is considered a weed. But the beekeeper is very lucky because he grows around his stationary apiary, on waste grounds and in ravines.
- biennial plant (the life cycle of the plant is two years and begins to bloom only in the second year) up to one and a half meters high. Belongs to the family borachnikovyh. The bruise flowers are large compared to many honey plants. They are pink at the beginning of flowering, and then turn blue. This honey plant begins to bloom in mid-June and lasts up to two months. The root system has a core shape and goes deep into the soil. The plant is poisonous!
For beekeepers, the greatest value in this plant is, without doubt, bruise medoproductivity According to various data, this varies from 300 to 800 kg per hectare, which is a very, very good indicator. Bees collect nectar and pollen from a bruise throughout the day. Nectar secretion occurs even in dry weather and cold weather.
It should also be noted that the honey obtained from this plant does not crystallize for a long time and can be left to the bees for the winter. The color of such honey is light amber. Honey is rich with excellent taste and aroma.
All these qualities of a bruise as a honey plant cannot be overestimated.
Bruise ordinary can be sown around the apiary on their own. This honey plant is considered a weed and in a few years will begin to spread independently, so to speak, self-seeding. If the apiary is small, the result, depending on the amount of planting, will become noticeable in a few years. Many beekeepers planting honey plants around the apiary brings great moral and aesthetic pleasure.
The seeding rate of bruise seeds is 3-5 kg per hectare. Seeds are very small. In 10 grams to 3000 pieces. Planting need to a depth of one to three centimeters. It is better to do this in spring or autumn, but so that the shoots do not appear before the first frost. The bruise is unpretentious to the soil and grows even on poor soils.
In folk medicine for the healing of patients apply a variety of plants. One of these returning health representatives of the world of plants is a bruise. This is an herbaceous biennial plant from the family Burachnikovyh genus Sinyak. Bruise stalk upright, about one meter tall, simple. It is covered with short, hard, prickly bristles and villus whitish-gray color. Листья растения имеют линейно-ланцетовидную форму, длину порядка тринадцати сантиметров и ширину около полутора сантиметров. Располагаются листовые пластины очередно, черешок у них отсутствует. Цветы синяка обыкновенного сидячие и располагаются на небольших боковых веточках-цветоносах, которые объединены по стеблю в метельчатое соцветие. Окрас их синий. Плод растения – орешек буроватого цвета. Период цветения – с мая по июль, плодоношения – с августа по сентябрь.
Common bruise is widespread in Europe and Central Asia. He prefers dry slopes in the forest and forest-steppe zone. The plant is weedy everywhere except in apiary areas, where it is cultivated as a good honey plant.
What helps ordinary bruise
Traditional healers have learned to successfully apply this plant from many diseases. An ordinary bruise is prescribed as an expectorant, sedative, anticonvulsant, sedative, anesthetic, hemostatic, hematopoietic, wound healing, antitoxic and hemorrhagic.
With bronchitis, bruise-based medications have a marked expectorant effect, quickly freeing the bronchi and lungs from sputum and thus helping to heal as soon as possible. Promotes plant cleansing the lungs, even in smokers.
The soothing properties of a bruise can cope with various neuroses, hysteria and unreasonable increased anxiety. For women in the period of menopause, when the nervous system is under increased stress, preparations from the plant allow to avoid unpleasant nervous manifestations.
The anticonvulsant action of a bruise can be used to combat epileptic seizures. It is noticed that with proper use of this herbal medicine, their frequency is significantly reduced, and the strength weakens.
The plant's ability to heal wounds is also very pronounced. With the help of a bruise of ordinary, not only fresh skin lesions can be cured, but also long-standing ulcers, which cannot be managed with traditional methods.
For various diseases of the joints compresses with the use of drugs from the plant help to reduce pain and swelling. Traditional healers prescribe a bruise as the main means of treatment for gout, rheumatism and arthritis.
The ability of the plant to eliminate toxins from the body effectively helps with the bites of poisonous insects and snakes. By quickly associating and removing toxic substances from the body, an ordinary bruise in a short time improves the patient's condition and speeds up his recovery.
Contraindications to the use of bruise ordinary
When treating with a bruise ordinary it is important to remember that the plant is poisonous and overdose can be fatal. Because of this, it is completely unacceptable not to comply with the prescribed dosage. Contraindications to the use of plants are:
- breastfeeding period,
- allergic reaction.
Infusion for the treatment of cough
For the preparation of this very effective medication, you need to take 10 grams of crushed plant raw materials and brew only boiled water in one glass. After that, the dishes with the drug must be placed in a warm place to insist for 3 hours. Then the composition should be drained. Drink the infusion of one tablespoon 3 times a day, regardless of meal times. The course of treatment should not exceed 10 days. If an unpleasant sensation arises when using a bruise medication, you should immediately stop taking it.
Description of bruise ordinary
Bruise ordinary - Biennial honey plant with a height of 100-180 cm, blooms the next year after sowing. The flowers are large, gathered in curls on elongated peduncles, pink at the beginning of flowering, and then bright blue. Numerous curls form an elongated pyramidal spike inflorescence in the upper half of the stem. Leaves sessile, linear-lanceolate. The root of the core system penetrates deep into the soil.
Bruise flowers emit a lot of nectar and pollen, are actively visited by bees. It is necessary to have 4-5 bee colonies per hectare of bruise.
Honey of light amber color, slightly aromatic with high taste, slowly crystallizes into a fine-grained structure, thick consistency, is well stored.
Bees collect beautiful blue pollen from this plant. When at the end of the working day I had to collect pollen traps from the pollen trap, I could not stop looking at it. “Beads”: among the yellow, white, gray, orange lumps, it was the blue that stood out with special beauty.
Biological features of a bruise ordinary
The biological features of a common bruise are that after the emergence of shoots a rosette is formed tightly against the ground. At the same time, a taproot is formed, which in the first year penetrates the soil to a depth of 40-60 cm. The height of the bruise of the first year of life reaches 20–30 cm by the end of the growing season.
In the second year of life, the plant continues to be in the outlet phase until the beginning of June. Then, 5-7 stems with a height of 50-180 cm grow from the outlet. The intensive growth starts from the second decade of June and lasts until July 1. This period of plant life coincides with the phase of budding and the beginning of flowering. In conditions of Siberia, the Urals and the European part of Russia, the bruise blooms from mid-June and blooms in July-August.
Within the curl, the first lower flower first opens, after 1-2 days, the second, and after 1-2 days the third, and so on. In the curl, there are 1-2 flowers open simultaneously. Each flower lives and produces nectar for about two days. The number of flowers per plant varies from 927 to 4429, which, in terms of one hectare, is 260 and 443 million flowers, respectively.
Why do bruises of ordinary blue flowers?
In addition to personal observations, I rummaged a lot in literature and the Internet, which made it possible once again to be convinced of the unique ability of plants to attract bees for pollination.
An ordinary bruise has several popular names: blue, blush, rannik blue.
The corolla of the flower is blue, but at the beginning of flowering it is pinkish-reddish, for which the plant is popularly called blush. Here on this name - rumen, I want to stay more. In my opinion, this feature is closely related to the peculiarity of the flower, which blooms rosy, and then turns blue. In the literature, I met conflicting judgments.
So, L.K.Panarina in the book “Honey plants of Western Siberia”, 1970, asserts: “Bees very well visit bruise flowers, especially when they get a blue color, since at this time there is more nectar”.
It has been 28 years, and in the magazine "Beekeeping"(# 1, 1998) authors A.N. Burmistrov, A.K. Gribchenko report: “Bees visit flowers especially well when they become bluish and contain more nectar.”
Finally, here are excerpts from the Big Encyclopedia. BEEKING FROM A TO Z, 2005, V.R. Verbitsky, I.Z. Kopeyenko, I.I.Sumarov. “The flowers are collected in panicles in thick curls, at the beginning of flowering they are pink in color, and after fertilization the ovules change color to blue. Nectar is found in flowers until they are pink, i.e. before fertilization, in the blue flowers of nectar does not happen, and the bees do not sit on them. ”
After thorough deliberation I state my opinion:
Blue flowers play a role in attracting bees. A bright, heavenly beauty flower, all blue blossoms attract bees. If the flowers remained pale pink, they would not be so interesting to bees, less noticeable. And given the fact that the nectar of an ordinary bruise is slightly aromatic, it becomes obvious that the flowers turn blue in order to attract the bees to the plant itself.
But the blush flower turns blue only after fertilization, which occurs during the first two days of the flower’s life. It is during these two days that the pink flower secretes nectar. In the blue flowers nectar does not happen. Knowing this, bees, in order not to waste time, blue flowers do not even sit down. They have enough work for rosy flowers, since on one plant, under good conditions, 80-100 flowers are bloomed every day.
Probably, there are some transitional moments in the flowering stages of a common bruise. The flowers can be half pink and half bluish. Bees may come under observation on flowers of different shades, for example, on the third day of flowering. But actively nectar flowers secrete within two days after blooming.
I hope that those with scientifically based data will add to my thoughts in their comments. This will help to get to know this, still little studied and not widely spread honey plant.
Seeds of ordinary bruise and agrotechnics of its cultivation
This plant has a very high viability. Seed germination lasts three years. Seeds are small (1000 pieces weigh 3 grams). The fruit is dry, splits into four trihedral tubercular nuts, at the top of the pointed.
An ordinary bruise is harvested on seeds when it has browned 2/3 of the flower brush on most stems. The mowed mass should dry in rolls for 6-8 days, then proceed to threshing. Store the seeds in a dry ventilated area, preferably in canvas bags.
Crop cultivation bruise is simple. An ordinary bruise, like other biennial cultures, is cultivated by various methods:
1. The most common method - seeding in its pure form, that is, without blood. But this method is suitable for warm climatic areas. In the northern regions, particularly in Siberia, with the help of the blanket method, the bruise of the first year can freeze.
2. An ordinary bruise feels great under any cover crop, only it is necessary to reduce the seeding rate of cover crop by 20-30% so that it does not oppress the bruise. Well suited for cover culture oats. He is quickly gaining a green mass, which can be mowed to feed cattle. This is done no later than 1 - 1.5 months after germination.
The cover crop is mown with a stubble height of 10-12 cm. This technique allows the bruise to develop well before winter. As a cover crop, you can use phacelia, mustard, rape, etc. In the first year of life, a bruise with this method of sowing after harvesting the cover crop forms a rather dense herbage. The stubble of cover crop retains the snow and the bruise does not freeze.
3. Often blush is used in mixed crops with perennial grasses. Bruise blooms in mid-June, and in early July, perennial grasses mow hay. After mowing, the bruise again grows and blooms in late August. Flowering after bruise continues until frost. This is a very important technique. In the autumn, bees willingly visit bruise flowers and collect a lot of nectar and pollen, which is so necessary for the next winter.
4. It is practiced to sow a bruise of ordinary autumn in the winter, which will give spring more full and early shoots. But such crops should be carried out not earlier than just before the most frosts, so that shoots do not have time to appear, which can die of frost.
Sowing a bruise of ordinary produce from early spring to early July, the main thing that he had time to get stronger and winter. The best time for sowing is early spring.
The seeding rate is 3-5 kg per 1 ha, the embedment depth is 1-3 cm. Sowing can be done with ordinary seed drills through the opener so that the row spacing is within 30 cm. After sowing, the soil should be rolled in for better contact of the seeds with the soil.
Many beekeepers cultivate a bruise of ordinary in their near-plots. The seeding rate of bruise seeds is 30-50 grams per one hundred square meters.
Bruise is undemanding to the type of soil, it multiplies and self-seeding. Where there is no possibility to sow a bruise on the fields, it can be sown successfully on slopes, ravines, along the banks of rivers and in places where useless plants grow. In Russia, thousands of kilometers of oil and gas pipelines. Broad bands of loose earth are overgrown with weeds, and if you sow an ordinary bruise along these pipelines, there will be honey and the endless beauty of blue stripes that can be admired even from space. Live scheme of pipeline transportation system of Russia. I give the idea to the Ministry of Transport.
An ordinary bruise - honey-bearer.
The plant is wonderful for its honey. Its flowers are actively visited by honey bees: on one square meter you can count 20-30 working bees. The bruise, unlike other honey plants, abundantly produces nectar in any weather, which attracts bees to it throughout the daylight hours. The most intense bruise is visited by bees at 12-13 o'clock in the afternoon.
Droughts and dry winds reduce the nectar secretion of a common bruise, but to a lesser extent than other honey plants. It is noted that the bruise consistently allocates nectar, even with summer cooling.
In favorable weather a bruise can produce up to 6-8 kg of honey per day per bee colony. Medical products bruise reaches 800-850 kg / ha. One flower gives 0.8-2.5 mg of nectar.
Flowering plants attract bees that collect nectar and pollen. Normally developed stem forms up to 2 thousand, and a rosette bush - 5-6 thousand flowers. There are 250-500 million flowers per hectare.
Honey productivity of 1 ha of bruise is 300-450 kg, sometimes up to 800 kg. For comparison, I cite the medoproductivity of individual plants: salvage - 100-120, alfalfa 30, clover - 200-300, spring rapeseed - 60-100, sunflower 25-40, phacelia -200-300, buckwheat - 70-100 kg / ha. Consequently, one hectare of bruise ordinary, due to its high medoproduktivnosti, can replace several hectares of other honey crops.
In this way, ordinary bruise can be attributed to one of the best melliferous plants.
Description and characterization of the honey bruise. Bruise ordinary - features of the plant honey plant, agricultural technology
Common bruise (echium vulgare) is a biennial plant that belongs to the borage family. The most common in the western part of Russia, it grows in spacious sunny glades and forest edges. Its unpretentiousness allows it to grow also on stony sites and near roads.
The height of the biennial reaches 100 cm, but in the first year, its growth does not exceed 30 cm. In the first year of growth, its stem is covered with rough hairs, therefore cattle cannot be grazed on such fields. The bruise has a taproot that penetrates deep into the soil, so the plant is quite strong and stable.
In the first year of life, the plant does not bloom, in the second year it blooms in early June. Possesses spike-like inflorescences. At the beginning of flowering, the corolla is studded with pink flowers, which then begin to turn a bright blue color. It blooms before the start of frosts, retaining its beautiful color.
Features: grass changes flower color to attract bees more strongly. The fact is that the nectar of flowers does not have a strong sweet aroma, therefore, for survival, it needs to learn to attract the attention of bees with its color, because of which the buds are painted in a bright color. However, blue flowers no longer contain nectar, so the bees fly to blue, but sit on young sweet pink flowers.
Bruise honey plant, stands in second place, immediately after lime. During the flowering period brings up to 850 kg of honey product. Pollen has a pleasant blue color, which, along with nectar, the bees violently collect all day. Resistance to drought, allow the plant to always give the bees the right amount of nectar in any weather. Up to 5 bee colonies can work on 1 hectare of field.
Despite the fact that the honey plant is a poisonous bruise, it produces first-class healing high-quality honey. Its medicinal properties are superior to many other varieties. It is widely used in folk medicine as a medicinal and sedative. Curative properties are also shown in leaves and young shoots, from which tinctures and decoctions are prepared.
What caused the blue color
The common bruise of the people has its own names: rumen, rannik blue, etc. Why does the flower first bloom pink and reddish, and then turn blue?
The fact is that if the flowers remained pink, they would not be so noticeable to the bees, especially considering the slightly aromatic nectar. Blue hue plays an attracting role. The plant turns blue after fertilization that occurs in the first two days of the honey plant life.
Bruise ordinary has a very high viability. Seed germination persists for three years. They are small: a thousand pieces weigh only three grams. Fruits are dry, fall into four tubercular nuts, pointed at the top.
The seeds of a plant are harvested when two thirds of the flower brush grows brown on most stems. The mowed mass is dried for six or eight days in rolls, and after that they proceed to threshing. Seeds are stored in canvas bags in a dry ventilated area.
An ordinary bruise is cultivated by various methods, like other biennial cultures. The most common method is seeding in its pure form (without blood). This option is suitable for areas with a warm climate. In the northern regions, in particular, in Siberia, the plant of the first year, when cultivated using the blanket method, can freeze out.
Medonos feels great under any cover crop, only its seeding rate should be reduced by twenty to thirty percent. As a cover crop, oats are good. He is rapidly gaining green mass, and it can later be mowed for feeding cattle. This should be done after no more than one to one and a half months after germination.
Often ordinary bruise is used in crops with perennial grasses. The plant blooms in mid-June, and perennials in early July, mow hay. После этого медонос отрастает вновь и зацветает в конце августа.
Высевать синяк обыкновенный практикуется под зиму, что позволит весной получить более ранние и полные всходы. Однако такие посевы нужно проводить перед самыми заморозками, не раньше, чтобы не появились всходы, которые могут погибнуть от морозов.
В отличие от других медоносов, синяк обыкновенный выделяет нектар при какой угодно погоде, что влечет к нему пчел на протяжении всего светового дня. Especially intensively the plant is visited by them at 12-13 hours.
Dry winds and droughts reduce the release of nectar, although to a lesser extent than other honey plants. In good weather, a bruise per day can give up to six to eight kilograms of honey per bee colony. One flower produces from 0.8 to 2.5 milligrams of nectar. Medoproduktivnost reaches 800-850 kilograms per hectare, which is significantly more compared to other honey-bearing plants. For example, in the tributary this indicator is 200-300 kilograms, in sainfoin - 100-200, in spring rape - 60-100, in phacelia - 200-300, in sunflower - 25-40, in buckwheat - 70-100.
Thus, we can conclude that the bruise ordinary - one of the best honey plants, as 1 hectare of a plant can replace several hectares of other honey crops.
Use in medicine
Nineteenth-century herbalists mention the use of a bruise of ordinary in the case of snake bites. Nowadays, the plant is used in traditional medicine of Belarus, the Caucasus, the regions of Central Asia and Siberia. It is used in epilepsy as an anticonvulsant sedative and with bronchitis, laryngitis, whooping cough as an expectorant. For joint pains, sprains, a bruise of ordinary use is applied in the form of compresses. A decoction of the roots is used as a blood-purifying agent.