General information

Rules for harvesting and storing wheat

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Currently, agriculture is in a difficult situation. This is due to several reasons: the lack of new, high-performance equipment, non-compliance with the technology of agricultural work, lack of competent managers, not enough developed infrastructure in the provincial cities, which are the main producers of agricultural products. The crisis of agriculture in our country became acute in the second half of the 90s of the 20th century. The way out of this situation is possible only with the active participation and support of the state in this area.

The effectiveness of the mechanization of agricultural production is very high. So the transition from live traction to mechanical traction allowed us to increase labor productivity during harvesting and threshing of grain crops 44 times. The main tasks of complex mechanization are the introduction of a more advanced system of machines for the cultivation and harvesting of agricultural crops, a significant increase in the reliability and durability of agricultural machinery.

The goal of the course project is to acquire practical skills in solving the issues of integrated mechanization of agricultural production and technology of technical maintenance of the MTP.

1. A brief description of the economy and units

1.1 General Information

The organization “IP Head KFH Petrov AV” is located in the urban-type settlement of Olkhovatka, Olkhovatsky District, Voronezh Region, 3 kilometers from the district center and 215 kilometers from the regional center of the city of Voronezh.

The farm has two divisions. The roads in the farm reliable. The land use area is 1810 hectares of which arable land occupies 1600 hectares.

Land tenure is located in a temperate zone. The greatest influence on the growth and development of crops is the temperature of air and soil, the amount of precipitation and their distribution over the season. The average annual air temperature is +6 o C. The coldest months are December and January, the warmest are June and July. Crop production farms cause great damage early spring and autumn frosts. However, the growing season is not less than 190 days, and this is quite enough for the development of all major crops.

The average annual precipitation on the territory of the Olkhovatsky district is 489 mm.

The weather regime of the Voronezh region is rather unstable. In winter, thaws occur, which often replace frosts. In the winter, winds of the western directions dominate. Often there is an invasion of air masses from Western Siberia and the Arctic. In summer, there is often a change of wind from the south-east to north-west. At the same time, August is the “quietest” month of the year with a wind speed of 2.7 to 4 m / s. Summer in the Voronezh region is often hot. Frequent droughts: 2-3 years for 10 years. In droughts, dry winds are frequent (dry wind - a type of weather characterized by high air temperature and low relative humidity, often in combination with moderate (6–9 m / s) or strong (10 m / s or more) wind. In the daytime, relative when the dry air humidity is less than 30% (sometimes falling to 10-15% or even less), and the air temperature is above 25--30 ° C (sometimes 40 ° C and above)), the days with which it can be up to 40 per warm period. In the fall, frosts usually begin in October, and then the first snow can fall. The steady snow cover falls in December, but there are years when it was established in January-February. Moreover, occasionally in the south of the region a steady snow cover is not formed at all. In spring, snow usually comes off towards the end of March. This process takes place very intensively, taking 2-3 weeks, and in some years all the snow can melt in just a week.

Labor resources are provided by workers engaged in agricultural production. These are permanent and temporary workers, managers and specialists, employees of the engineering service, employees engaged in auxiliary production.

The farm mainly specializes in the production of crop products, namely: grain crops, sunflower, sugar beet, corn and grass.

The structure of the planned acreage and crop yields of the first division are presented in table 1.1.

Table 1.1. Planned sown areas and crop yields of the first division:

Average transportation distance, km

1.Oz. Wheat grain

3. Corn for silage

5.Mn. grass for hay

For the production of cultivated crops in the production of the economy there is a necessary machine and tractor fleet, including tractors, combines and trailed agricultural machines. There are also necessary vehicles.

Crop production involves the use of appropriate technology.

Consider, in accordance with the task, the technology of production of winter wheat for grain.

Winter wheat is placed on such predecessors as steam, wicker-oatmeal mixture, corn for green fodder or silage, and cereals.

Consider the technology of cultivation of winter wheat with a predecessor such as steam.

After the early occupied vapors under winter crops, plowing is carried out (especially when applying manure and higher doses of tuk) with an arable machine (plow, harrow, roller) for 16-18 (up to 20) cm or loosen superficially to a depth of 6-8 (up to 10) cm. Surface treatment is much more efficient, especially in comparison with the blocky and late plowing. In the case of poor crumbling of dry soil (lumps), and also if less than a month is left before winter sowing begins, plowing is replaced by surface loosening with 6-8 cm disc (BD-10, BDT-7, BDT-3) or flat-cutting (KPI- 3.8, KPSh-9, etc.) implements, or combined tillage units (AKP-2.5, AKP-5, etc.). After the rain, the cultivated soil of the engaged steam must be raised, and then as the weeds grow, and before sowing, cultivations are carried out, with the help of which they destroy the weeds and create a leveled sowing bed.

Fertilizer is the main reserve for increasing yields and improving the quality of winter wheat grains. She is responsive to fertilizer. On average, winter wheat of strong varieties of intensive type consumes about 4 kg of nitrogen, phosphorus - 1.3, potassium - 2.3 kg to create 1 centner of grain with the appropriate amount of straw. The estimated doses of fertilizers for obtaining 50-60 centners / ha of strong grain are approximately N120-l50Pl20-l40K80-100.

The farm must have in crops not one, but 2-3 varieties of different ecotypes, differing in biology. This will increase the sustainability of wheat yields in different years. For sowing, it is important to use seeds that have passed post-harvest ripening and have a high (at least 92%) germination rate and germination energy. Accelerates the ripening of seeds solar or air-heat heating. It is conducted on the current for 5-7 days, scattering the seeds in a thin (5-10 cm) layer, and in cloudy weather - in a grain dryer at a temperature of 20-25 ° C for 15-20 hours. But it is better to use not freshly harvested seeds, but harvested last year. This is especially true in years with rainy summer, when less than 30 days pass from harvest to sowing of winter crops.

Caring for crops is reduced to postseeding packing, early spring harrowing and protection of crops from all kinds of damage.

Post-sowing (or simultaneously with sowing) rolling in dry windy weather reduces diffuse moisture loss, improves seed contact with the soil and provides a more friendly emergence of shoots. In rainy weather, it is unnecessary and even harmful, especially on clay soil.

Grazing of cattle, including overgrown winter crops, is categorically unacceptable, even over frozen soil, since it reduces their productivity by 30-40% or more and even contributes to the death of crops. If there is a danger of overgrowing, seedlings can be treated with a round (1-1.5 kg / ha ai) in the phase of 3-4 leaves. This will slow down the growth of plants, increase their winter hardiness.

Cleaning: Winter wheat is harvested in a separate way, as well as by direct combining. Mowing in rolls is carried out by reapers ZhVS-6, ZhVN-6, etc. in the middle of wax ripeness with grain moisture 35-20% for 5-7 days. After 3-4 days of drying to 18–14% grain moisture, the rolls are picked and threshed with the Niva, Don 1500 harvester, etc. The grain is immediately cleaned on the ZAV-20, ZAV-40 on the current and dried. Upon reaching full ripeness, wheat is harvested by direct combine. The total duration of cleaning should be no more than 10 days. Otherwise, grain loss from shedding is inevitable.

1.2 Tasks of course design

We formulate the main tasks of improving the production technology of the product, as well as on the technology and organization of maintenance in the first division of the economy:

1. To develop a rational wheat cultivation technology for the conditions of the first division of the farm.

2. Design an operational technology for sowing winter wheat.

3. Determine the type of RBD management, choose a rational scheme of organization of DOM in the unit.

2. Designing the production technology of winter wheat

2.1 Compilation of the technological card of production of winter wheat

For the placement of winter wheat, choose the predecessor of winter legume-cereal mixtures.

Domestic and foreign experience has shown that the traditional technology of cultivating grain crops with plowing and harvesting and spring harrowing is characterized by high labor intensity and high energy costs. Therefore, one of the ways to improve technology is to minimize tillage, both in depth and in the number of operations.

In modern practice of tillage to the most promising economical energy-saving and at the same time soil-protective methods include minimal and zero tillage, significantly reducing the number of agricultural operations.

The technology with zero tillage provides direct sowing in the soil, pretreated with herbicides, and if necessary with insecticides. Plowing and cultivation for zero tillage is absent, more intensively used plant protection products.

The preparation of fields for winter wheat begins with the pre-treatment of the field with a general fighter herbicide with the active substance glyphosate at a dose rate of the preparation of 2-3 l / ha. Two weeks after the treatment of the field with herbicides, we sow the seed drill with the SKP-2.1. The optimal sowing period for the farm is the period from September 20 to October 1. Subject to these deadlines, winter wheat plants in the winter enter the phase of the beginning of tillering. We sow at a depth of 7 cm with a seeding rate of 200 kg / ha. When sowing, a complex mixture must be used at the rate of 10-12 kg / ha of the active substance nitrogen, 40-60 g of phosphorus and 70-90 g of potassium. The key to obtaining a high yield of this technology is fertilizer in the spring. The rate of application of nitrogen fertilizers on permafrost soil is 25-30 kg / ha. In the second feeding, ammonium nitrate is applied in the norm of 80-90 kg / ha. The third dressing with nitrogen according to the flag list is normal 50-70 kg / ha. In this technology, microelements are also used, which are introduced simultaneously with herbicides in the phase of entering the tube (crystal, 3 kg / ha). For care of crops, the HARDI trailed sprayer and the mineral fertilizer spreader MVU-5 are used. Two weeks before the harvest, Roundap is brought in at a rate of 1.0 l / ha. We start harvesting when wheat is in the phase of full maturity and humidity of 20% or less. We apply direct combining. We use the combine "Yenisei-1200".

Table 2.1 - Technological card production of winter wheat

Harvest time

Experimentally, the best time for harvesting wheat was identified. The main harvest is 10-12 days after full maturity. The grain reaches its maximum size, dries to a moisture content of not more than 20%, and the stem dries out completely and acquires a golden hue.

If you start harvesting a little earlier, at the beginning of wax ripeness, the grain will be completely full-bodied, but not dry enough, so it will need additional drying. Late harvesting can lead to crop losses due to lodging of crops.

Direct combining

In modern agriculture, when harvesting, the most often used method is direct combining, as the most efficient and convenient. Its essence lies in the single-phase bevel of ears with their subsequent threshing, clearing of debris and transportation to the granary. This work is most often done by combines Mega-204, Lida-1300, E-525, E-527, DON-1500, KZS-10, Mega-218, KZR-10, KZS-7. Winter wheat harvesting occurs when the full maturity of the grain arrives, so the harvesting period should be finished no later than a week to avoid losses due to displacement.

The popularity of the method is explained by several advantages:

  • Low energy costs and low cost of harvesting,
  • Independence from weather conditions
  • Minimum yield loss.

Direct combining is best used if the ears are evenly maturing and there is no lodging.

Separate collection method

In fields with a significant number of weeds, perennial grass or uneven ripening of wheat ears, the method of separate harvesting is used. According to this technology, the collection is carried out at the beginning of wax ripeness. At this stage, the stem already has a yellow color, but the ear itself has a greenish tint in places, and the grain already accumulates a maximum of nutrients and has a moisture content of 30-35%. Wheat is mown and formed from its rolls, in which it remains to ripen in the fields. After drying, which lasts 3-5 days, the grain reaches a moisture content of 17-18% and the shafts are harvested from the fields.

This method has the disadvantage that the shafts can get under the rain, which significantly delay the drying process.

For maximum productivity, the best time for the first stage is 3-4 days, so in practice both methods of harvesting are most often combined. For these several days before the start of full ripeness, part of the ears is harvested in a separate way, and the method of direct combining is used to collect the remaining ripe crop.

Harvesting wheat by combine

In modern agriculture, the combine is the most important combine harvester. Being a complex device, it replaced three simple ones - a reaper, a thresher and a fan. With a continuous stream, he mows the plant, threshes and sifts the plant material, delivers and mechanically unloads the wheat to the storage location. This optimized the process, increased gross grain harvest and reduced harvest time. In addition to large industrial harvesters, mini-harvesters based on the motoblock are used on private farms.

Principle of operation

The combine cuts the plant, directing it along a special conveyor to the threshing and separating chamber, where the raw material is crushed and the grain is threshed out of it by the beaters. Through the holes in the bottom of the chamber, the grain leaks along with small debris, falling on the sifter, where the debris is separated from the grains. The remaining straw in the threshing chamber with the emptied ears and the remaining grain is conveyed to the straw walker, where the final separation of grain and straw occurs, which is thrown from the combine into the field.

Crop storage

After harvesting it is necessary to keep it as long as possible, without losing weight and quality. Before being placed in the granary, the wheat must be thoroughly dried to a moisture content of 10-12%, and disinfection must be carried out in the granary itself. Next, usually measure the yield of winter wheat. For this, a measure of the volume of wheat is used, such as a bushel (35.2393 dm3) or the seeding rate (number of seeds in million pieces). Should take into account the capacity of the room.

In storage the crop is stored in bulk. Bulk density of wheat determines how much a cube of wheat weighs and is 750-850 kg / m3.

Warehouses with wheat require constant maintenance. Personnel should monitor factors such as:

  • Grain moisture,
  • Room temperature
  • Air exchange

The increased water content and temperature above 10-12 degrees is very favorable for bacteria and microorganisms that can harm the crop, reducing its quality and leading to weight loss. Such conditions may also contribute to the germination of grain, which greatly complicates its storage. There must be a ventilation system in the wheat storage room. Subject to all rules and recommendations in good conditions, the storage period for grain can reach 3-5 years. But its shelf life for sowing does not exceed 14 months.

Home Storage

Before you store wheat at home, you need to find a suitable container for it. These are usually small cloth bags or glass jars. In the case of a glass jar, you need to be especially attentive to the dryness of the grains. At home, they are usually dried in the sun.

Для хранения значительных объемов зерна для кормления животных лучше всего использовать мешки и складировать их в отдельном помещении. Для этого хорошо подходит помещение с бетонным полом и стенами, обитыми металлическими листами. Как хранить в домашних условиях мешки с зерном?

Их рекомендуется укладывать рядами, но не на пол, а на деревянные подставки, чтобы избежать впитывания зерном влаги.

Как собирали урожай в старину

Even in the Stone Age, people found that the seeds of some plants are very satisfying and can be stored for a long time. Therefore, they tried to settle near the fields to gather. They cut off the ears of wild wheat, rye, barley with stone knives and ate them. Later, the people themselves sowed wheat and used tools for its harvest.

The sickle was the most popular, it was convenient for them to mow cereals because of their tall stem. The peasants collected the spike ear in sheaves, which they left in the fields for drying. Dried plants were collected and subjected to threshing grain. It was carried out by special threshing machines, which are two sticks connected by a chain. Then the grain was sent for storage, and the remaining hay after threshing was fed to cattle.

Winter wheat sowing technology

The first thing that starts sowing is seed preparation. They must be treated with special drugs against diseases and insects. You should be attentive to this process, and do not allow mixing with animal feed - this is fraught with their possible death. For dressing use Vincit Forte, Ivin, Fumaran, Gumistar, Oksigumat and others.

The territory under crops is exempted from predecessors and weeds. With a high degree of debris, broad-spectrum herbicides can be used. But after treatment with such drugs, it should take at least two weeks to start sowing.

The terms and norms of sowing differ depending on the variety of wheat sown, the harvesting period of the predecessors, the region, climatic conditions and the soil. Therefore, the sowing time may vary - from early August to mid-October. The key to successful cultivation of winter wheat is a rich snow cover in winter. With long frosts and the absence of snow, crops will not be able to maintain their viability for a long time, and will soon die. The length of the growing season, taking into account the winter, lasts 270–350 days.

Mechanized processing of the soil (plowing) after the predecessors is carried out by disc harrows to a depth of 20–22 cm. Then mineral fertilizer is introduced into the soil - with the help of fertilizers, or manure - using spreaders. When using manure, it is recommended to re-cultivate the soil with this fertilizer in order to mix it with the soil to the maximum and contribute to better absorption.

Sowing is performed by continuous ordinary, cross-cutting and narrow-row methods, with the help of C3-3.6 or C3U-3.6 planters. After sowing, it is imperative to roll in the soil - in order to preserve moisture, and harrowing - in order to avoid the appearance of a crust. The average sowing rate for winter wheat varieties is 3.5–7 million seeds per hectare. Sowing depth - from 3 to 8 cm. With heavy soils, sowing is carried out at a depth of 3–4 cm, with arid and sandy - 7–8 cm.

Care of crops

Care for spring wheat sowings includes: a set of measures aimed at combating weeds, additional fertilizer after germination and during flowering (if necessary), processing crops against harmful insects and diseases. Usually, the treatment with any preparations is carried out with the help of agricultural aviation - this is much faster, more efficient, and with minimal injuries for shoots.

Consider the main diseases that undergo winter wheat crops:

  • rust
  • powdery mildew
  • root rot
  • smut
  • bacteriosis

Due to the winter form of growing, some of the causative agents of these diseases are inhibited by severe frosts. But in cases of massive contamination of crops, treatment by Bayleton, Tilt, Fundazol is necessary. With insufficient effect after a one-time treatment is repeated. The main signs of these diseases are growth retardation, discoloration of the spikelets and the stem, absence of the ovary or the development of small spikelets, rotting of the roots.

Pests, which attacks are most often subjected to winter wheat crops:

  • kuzhka bread beetle
  • grass fly
  • bread drink
  • ground beetle.

What needs to be done to prevent this problem? First of all - the qualitative soil loosening and the introduction of special preparations that can destroy the larvae of pests. Of particular importance is the quality post-harvest cleaning of seeds and dressing, sowing of spring wheat after the “correct” predecessors. For the post-harvest processing of crops, Karate, Bazudin, Diazinon preparations are used.

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