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Cherry plum in your garden, planting and care

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If the pressure jumped and the headache hurts, you can eat a little cherry plum, about two hundred grams. The pain will pass, the body will recover. On the healing properties of this plant is mentioned in the Vedic treatises ayuverdy. From cherry plums do famous tkemalevy sauce. This southern plant is well acclimatized in the gardens of the temperate climate zone.. Let's take a closer look at the features of planting and caring for this plant in central Russia.

We grow cherry plum in the middle lane and Moscow region

Tkemali, plum, migrated to the European continent from Transcaucasia and Asia. The tree is unpretentious and able to interbreed with plums, peaches, cherries, cherries and apricots. These properties allowed breeders to bring varieties that are well-established in middle latitudes.

In the 19th century, tkemali were crossed with a Chinese frost-resistant plum. The hybrid has received the name "Russian plum". This plant was the basis for the breeding of many varieties that can grow in the middle zone. Some varieties withstand thirty degrees of frost.

Why you need to grow plum in the country, the dignity of the tree

Gardeners have long and successfully grown a tree, even in more northern latitudes, for example, the Kirov region. There are varieties that can be planted in the Far East. Therefore, the statement that the southern plant alcha is not quite true.

Russian plum has several advantages:

  • grows in almost all soils. But too acidic and alkaline earth endures poorly. This deficiency can be corrected. The increased acidity of the soil is neutralized by adding lime or dolomite flour (per 1 square meter of approximately 300 grams). In alkaline soil make gypsum, in the same proportion
  • gets accustomed quickly and begins to bear fruit after a year
  • high yield. Some varieties can produce up to 30-35 kg per tree,
  • since I come from the south tolerates heat well,
  • individual varieties ripen in late Julyearly August
  • get divorced in different ways: you can graft, graft and plant bends,
  • beautiful early honey plant,
  • contains vitamins useful for human health, minerals, acids. Recommended for many diseases,
  • widely used in cooking. They make sauce, jam, compotes, marshmallow, marmalade, sherbet from cherry plum. It turns out tasty and aromatic wine and tinctures.

All these advantages have made Russian plum, so called cherry plum, a popular plant among gardeners.

Popular varieties

Thanks to the efforts of breeders, varieties that take root in frosty winters are bred. At the same time significantly improved the quality characteristics of the fetus. Drugs became bigger. Yield increased. The shape and color of the fruits of different varieties of trees pleases with its diversity, from amber-yellow to burgundy and purple. You can choose varieties with different qualities. Sweeter, sour-sweet, juicy or those that are suitable for drying.

Most of all took root in middle latitudes:

  • varieties Shater, Kuban comet, Found. These are varieties that have enough large fruits (up to 40 grams) burgundy with yellow flesh. All three varieties tolerate winter well. Differ yield. Mature in August.
  • varieties Gift of St. Petersburg, Golds of the Scythians, Maar. These are low-growing and medium-growth frost-resistant varieties with yellow berries. The fruits are not very large. Appreciated for disease resistance and good winter hardiness.
  • Traveler Grade. Early Russian plum with burgundy fruits. Good pollinates other varieties of cherry plum.
  • Lama. Very beautiful tree with bardo-purple fruits and reddish leaves. Fruits up to 40 grams .

When is it better to plant a tree in spring or autumn?

If you decide to plant plum in the country or garden, then it is better to do it in the spring, but to purchase the plant in the fall. At this time, a larger range of planting material. During the autumn planting there is a risk that the tree will not have time to take root before frost.

Sapling bought in autumn can prikopat. To do this, make a hole to half a meter. Lay the tree at an angle to the south. They are added dropwise to the middle of the stem and sprinkled with earth on top.

How to plant plum

In most cases, the soil in the middle latitudes with high acidity, so you need to make lime. It is necessary to plant several seedlings at once so that they pollinate each other..

Although cold-resistant varieties are bred, by nature plum is a thermophilic tree. Therefore, planted on the south side, in places protected from the wind. Loves the plant plenty of light.

Boarding procedure:

  • dig a hole in depth and around the perimeter up to 70 centimeters ,
  • distance between landing pits from 2.5 to 3 meters,
  • the soil is well loosenedhumus, lime, mineral fertilizers are added (double superphosphate - 500 grams),
  • at the bottom of the pit pour a mound,
  • seedlings are planted slightly shaking the roots,
  • fixed near the supporttied to a tree,
  • good waterup to 4 buckets of water
  • tops cut off,
  • on top the soil is mulchedcan be peat.
Favorable time of year for planting cherry plums is spring (mid-April)

More winter-hardy seedlings obtained from the layers. Saplings in containers can be planted without holes, slightly prikopat and pour the earth on top.

Spring care

In the first year after planting trees can not feed, as they will have enough fertilizer applied during planting.

Trees older than two years in the spring feed. Before the tree starts to bloom, ammonium nitrate (up to 90 grams per square meter) is introduced, in early summer potassium (up to 50 grams), superphosphate (up to 180 grams).

In the early spring, water is diverted so as not to heat the roots. At the same time, pruning is carried out. Remove dried branches. Thin out the crown, leaving the branches, which are located at a distance of 20 cm from each other. The tops of the branches pinch.

The old bark is removed and the trunk is treated with a solution of copper sulphate (3%). In April, sprayed from pests.

If the spring is dry, then the plant is watered in the spring 2-3 times. .

Preparing a tree for winter

  • Make one more fertilizing organic and mineral fertilizers.
  • Before the leaves fall, watered deep under the root (up to 40cm) . For these purposes, make the deepening.
  • Clean dead bark, lime stem, carry out another spraying against pests.
  • Root shoots clean, the leaves are harvested and burned.
In winter, the trunk of the cherry plum is whitened and the crown is sprayed from pests.

If there is a hollow or wound on the trunk, then they are covered over. One of the recipes: 150 grams of copper sulphate, 2.5 tablespoons of lime and ash per 5 liters of clay diluted with water.

How to trim plum, the formation of the crown

The best time to form a crown and prune trees is early spring, before the movement of juices begins.

Like a plum form the crown in the form of a bowl. The first year is allocated and left three branches, with an inclination of up to 60 degrees. In the second and third year, three more skeletal branches are left. Do it evenly around the perimeter, so as to get a circle. The tops are cut by the level of the third skeletal branch. Cut large branches treated with garden pitch.

Formation of a crown of cherry plum in the form of a bowl

Non-frost resistant varieties are best formed as a bush.. In winter, they wrap themselves in snow and more easily tolerate frosts. To form a bush branches shortened to half a meter and bred to the side (up to 6 branches). Weights are used for this purpose.

The first years of the summer pruning after harvest. The tree at this time is powerfully developing, and the branches can reach 2 meters. Therefore, they are cut about 70 cm.

Cherry-plum along with traditional fruit trees, apples, plums, apricots, cherries took a worthy place in the gardens of the middle zone and the Moscow region, as with the right care, you can get a high yield. The fruits of the tree are a storehouse of useful substances. A high content of vitamins C and A, treats avitaminosis. Helps rid the body of radionuclides and harmful heavy metals. Treats a cold. Recommended for people with high blood pressure and rheumatism. Cleans the blood.

In addition, it is a tasty berry. It is suitable for preservation, drying. In cooking, many recipes of dishes with Russian plum. Why are only marinated tomatoes with cherry plum.

Caring for this culture provides protection from diseases and pests. Watch carefully for the state of the plant and take protective measures in time.

The benefits of cherry plums due to the large number of nutrients. It is a valuable source of ascorbic acid, anthocyanins, carotene and pectin.

It does not matter in what form they eat: fresh, canned, pickled or frozen - they are equally useful. Of these, you can make a lot of delicacies: jam, jam, jelly, marshmallow, fruit drink, marmalade and compote. In addition, made spicy seasonings and sauces will be to your liking, and homemade wine will appeal to lovers of interesting drinks.

Plant cherry plum in your garden, enjoy its beauty in spring and tasty healthy fruits all year round!

Origin

Cherry plum belongs to the genus of plums. It is customary to distinguish such cherry plum groups as typical cherry plum (found in the wild in the Caucasus, the Balkans and Central Asia), Eastern plum (habitats: Iran, Afghanistan), large-fruited cherry plum (large-fruited varieties, including those obtained using hybridization) .

Until recently, plum was grown only in warm lands. The breeders, having crossed the cherry plum with the Chinese plum, have obtained a hybrid, which, in addition to being highly commercial, has a higher winter hardiness than wild species of cherry plum. The new hybrid is called the Russian plum, but is better known as the hybrid plum.

Compared with the plum, this hybrid has a number of advantages, which include the following:

  • high annual yield,
  • entry into fruiting 2–3 years earlier than plum,
  • whiter resistance to diseases and pests
  • high drought resistance,
  • taste great.

Currently, more than 30 varieties of hybrid cherry plum are registered, among which there are varieties with different ripening terms, with different color and size of the fruit.

It is important to know

When planning a cherry plum, keep in mind the following:

  • Sometimes you can find on sale southern varieties that are completely unsuitable for cultivation in the Moscow region,
  • a small part of the cherry plum varieties are self-fertile, some - partly self-fruiting, but the majority - self-fertile. But even if you chose a samoplodny grade, then better provide him company other varieties blooming at the same time. Then the plant will produce more fruits, which will be larger than those of plum growing alone.

Cherry plum - landing and care

Site selection. Soil conditions

Cherry plum prefers moist, well-drained fertile loam. Since most of the roots lie at a depth of 20–40 cm, the plant can tolerate close groundwaterstanding at a depth of 1.5 m or even 1 m, but no closer.

The place should be well lit, but more importantly, the plantation was protected from cold winds.

To bookmark the garden choose annual seedlings with a well-developed root system.

At a distance of 2.5–3.5 meters, pits with a diameter of 60–70 cm and a depth of 50 cm are dug. Then, a planting mixture is prepared for each well from the upper fertile layer, 15 kg of humus, 100 g of superphosphate and 60 g of potassium salt. If necessary, you can add dolomite flour.

At the bottom of the pits a mound is poured over which the roots of the seedling are evenly distributed. It is necessary to establish a seedling so that after planting and subsidence of the soil it root neck was at the level of the soil. Then the pit is filled with the remaining mixture, slightly tamping it. Around the seedling arrange the hole, which poured 1-2 buckets of water. To preserve moisture, tree trunks are mulched with any available material: humus, sawdust, hay, rotted manure or peat. The layer of mulch should be at least 5 cm.

Further care

Cherry plum sensitively responds to competent care good harvest. In the absence of such a plant becomes less winter-hardy, sick and, as a result, brings a meager harvest of fruits of low quality.

In the first years after planting, most care consists of weeding, watering and pest control. As for fertilizers: if the plant was planted on fertile soil, then fertilizing will not be necessary before the start of fruiting. But when the plant begins to bear fruit, and therefore actively use nutrients from the soil, they will need an additional source.

The feed plan includes the following activities:

  • The application of organic fertilizers (humus, rotted manure, compost) every second or third autumn at the rate of 10 kg per 1 m2 of tree trunks.
  • The annual application of mineral fertilizers: before flowering - ammonium nitrate at the rate of 60–90 g per m2 of the trunk circle, in June - 40–50 g of potassium and 120–180 g of superphosphate.

Varieties that grow in the form of a tree are usually formed in a sparsely-tiered system in the first 3–4 years. Further pruning is reduced to thinning of the crown and the removal of diseased and damaged shoots.

Varieties in the form of a bush need to shorten too long shoots and thinning pruning.

Vaccination methods

One way of breeding cherry plum is a graft. As the stock is often used plum. Also, vaccination is done in order to change the variety that did not like, or to grow several varieties on one tree that will pollinate each other, or to restore the crown that died after a frosty winter.

The grafting of a young plant is carried out by the method of budding: T-shaped or pripriklad. In the T-shaped way, budding can be done during the period of active sap flow (from the beginning of July to mid-August). The second method is more popular, because it is less complicated in terms of technical performance, gives better results, and can also be used both during the active juice flow and before it starts.

Budding in the T-shaped way

If the thickness of the rootstock and the scion coincide, then you can use a simple copulation or an improved version of it.

Simple and improved copulation

For re-vaccination are more suitable methods such as inoculation in the application (preferably with a tongue), inoculation in the side slot, inoculation in the cleft. Re-vaccination can be performed from the beginning of spring until June 10th.

Vaccination with a tongue

Sidecut graft

Graft Splitting

Cherry plum gives really tasty fruits, from which boil jam, stewed fruit, jellies and marmalade. So it is worth planting plum in your garden, despite the fact that the plant is demanding to care.

Content

  • 1. Listen to the article (soon)
  • 2. Description
  • 3. Landing
    • 3.1. When to plant
    • 3.2. Planting in the fall
    • 3.3. How to plant in spring
  • 4. Care
    • 4.1. Spring care
    • 4.2. Summer care
    • 4.3. Autumn care
    • 4.4. Treatment
    • 4.5. Watering
    • 4.6. Top dressing
    • 4.7. Wintering
  • 5. Trimming
    • 5.1. When to trim
    • 5.2. How to trim
    • 5.3. Spring cropping
    • 5.4. Pruning in the summer
    • 5.5. Pruning in the fall
  • 6. Reproduction
    • 6.1. How to multiply
    • 6.2. Breeding shoots
    • 6.3. Reproduction root cuttings
    • 6.4. Graft
  • 7. Diseases
  • 8. Pests
  • 9. How to fight
  • 10. Grades

Planting and care for cherry plum (in brief)

  • Landing: in cold terrain - in spring, in warm terrain it is better to plant in autumn.
  • Bloom: in the beginning of May.
  • Lighting: bright sunshine.
  • The soil: fertile loam.
  • Watering: on average, three times per season: after flowering, after the growth of the shoots has stopped and after the fruits have acquired the correct coloring. Water consumption - 1.5-2 buckets for each year of tree life. Young plants are watered 4-5 times per season. In October, if the autumn is dry, spend water irrigation.
  • Feeding: once in 2-3 years 10 kg of organic matter per 1 m² wheel circle. Mineral supplements are needed annually: nitrogen supplements are introduced before flowering, and phosphate and potash fertilizers are added in June. Twice during the season, foliar dressings are carried out: in May - with a solution of trace elements, in June - with the same solution, but with the addition of potash and phosphorus fertilizer.
  • Pruning: sanitary and formative is carried out in the spring, before bud break. With urgent need you can carry out corrective pruning in the summer.
  • Breeding: root suckers, grafting, grafting, sometimes seeds.
  • Pests: brown fruit mites, mucous and yellow plum sawflies, oriental and plum moths, aphids, subcortical moths.
  • Diseases: Holey spotting (klyasterosporiosis), milky luster and false milky luster, moniliosis (gray rot), marsupial disease (plum pockets), coccomycosis.

Alycha tree - description

Cherry plum is a branchy, multi-truncated tree or shrub from 1.5 to 10 m in height with strong roots and thin brownish-green shoots. Leaves of cherry plum elliptical, pointed to the top. Single flowers with a diameter of 20-40 cm, white or pink, bloom in early May - flowering cherry plum is almost indistinguishable from blossoming plum. Cherry plum fruit - juicy, rounded, sometimes flattened, sometimes elongated drupes up to 3 cm in diameter, yellow, green, red, pink, purple or almost black, covered with a slight waxy coating. The bone is elongated or round, convex or flat, often poorly separated from the pulp. Its core contains oil, in its qualities not inferior to almond. The fruits ripen, depending on the variety, from July to September. The lifetime of cherry plum is 30-50 years.

Most of the varieties and hybrids of cherry plum are self-productive, that is, in order for the cherry plum to bear fruit, you need to have not one, but at least two trees that bloom around the same time. And even if you grow a self-fertile variety of cherry plum, if there is another cherry plum tree next to it, fruiting will be both more stable and more abundant.

Cherry plum is a relative of such crops as plum, apricot, peach, almond, apple, pear, wild rose, hawthorn, medlar, irga, cotoneaster, quince, ashberry and aronia. Cherry plum is a plastic culture, unpretentious, and yet it is not as popular among amateur gardeners as many of its relatives. Previously, cherry plum was grown only in warm areas, but thanks to the work of breeders who crossed cherry plum with a Chinese plum, a hybrid appeared, endowed with higher winter-hardiness - Russian plum, or hybrid cherry plum. This hybrid is stably harvested, it enters fruiting for 2-3 years earlier than plum, is resistant to diseases and pests and is drought-resistant.

We will tell you how to grow cherry plum in your garden, how to feed plum to stimulate its abundant fruiting, how to treat plum from diseases and pests, how to plant plum on plum rootstock and give a lot of other information that will help you to navigate in such a question, as landing and care for cherry plum.

When to plant plum.

In areas with a warm climate, cherry plum grows better in autumn than in spring, and in areas with cold winters, spring planting is safer. Buy for planting annual cherry plum seedlings that were grown in your area. Saplings with an open root system should be planted immediately, and those with roots in the container can wait.

Choose an outdoor sunny area protected from cold winds for cherry plum, preferably on a sloping northern, western or northwestern exposure. Trees growing on the south side of buildings that protect them from winds have higher yields, while fruits are larger and sweeter. The best soil for cherry plum is fertile loam. Since the root system of cherry plum is located mainly at a depth of 30-40 cm, it can be planted in areas where groundwater occurs at a depth of at least 1 m.

Planting plum in the fall.

At the end of September, for a week or two before planting, dig a hole 40–60 cm deep and 60–100 cm in diameter and fill it with 2/3 of a thoroughly mixed soil mixture, 15–20 kg of humus and 1 kg of Nitrophoska. If the soil at the site is acidic, add dolomite flour, chalk or lime to the soil mixture, and if it is alkaline, then you need to add gypsum to it. In addition, a little peat and sand should be added to the clay soil, and a little soddy soil should be added to the sandy soil. If you plant several trees, keep a distance of 2-4 m between the pits, depending on what is the crown of the adult tree of the cherry plum you plant.

On the day of planting, form a hillock at the bottom of the pit from the rest of the soil mixture, put a seedling on it, the roots of which are first placed in a clay mash with the addition of Heteroauxin, which stimulates root formation, then fill the pit with soil so that the root collar of the grafted seedling is at the surface level. Own-rooted seedlings can be planted with the deepening of the root collar.

After planting plum watered, and when the water is absorbed, tree trunks should be mulched.

How to plant cherry plum in the spring.

Cherry-plum in spring is planted in the ground before the start of sap flow, therefore, it is better to prepare pits for seedlings and fill them with nutrient soil mixture from autumn.

Pre-planting preparation of seedlings is very important: those of them whose root system is in the container, before releasing them from it, it is necessary to water it abundantly. For seedlings with an open root system, remove all rotten and dried roots and place them in a bucket with water for a day to swell the roots. Before planting, open roots are dipped into a clay mash with a root-forming agent.

Spring planting of cherry plum is carried out in the same manner as the autumn one.

Care for cherry plum in the spring.

In late March or early April, in the event of heavy snowfall in winter, you need to dig grooves in the soil to divert excess melt water. Scarlet cherry plum and skeletal branches are cleaned of dead bark and washed with a 3% solution of copper sulfate. In April, sanitary and formative pruning of cherry plum, digging of the area around it, planting of seedlings, introduction of nitrogen fertilizers, prophylactic treatment for pests and diseases, removal of root growth and inoculation of cuttings are carried out.

If winter was without snow, and spring without rain, spring watering irrigation of trees is carried out. A little later, cherry plum on the buds is sprayed with a solution of microelements.

In May, you may have to take measures to protect the trees from returning spring frosts. At the same time, plum is fed with complex mineral fertilizers.

Care for cherry plum in the summer.

Alycha in the summer needs regular watering, after which in tree trunks loosen the soil to a depth of 8-12 cm, at the same time destroying weeds. Keep in mind that young trees require more moisture than adults.

Lead a merciless fight against harmful insects and fungi, pinch the ends of the shoots that may not mature until the end of the growing season.

If you expect a big harvest, take care to establish backwaters in advance. A month after the first foliar application, spend the second, which, in addition to trace elements, must contain phosphorus and potassium.

The fruiting cherry plum in August feeds its fruits and lays generative buds for the next year, therefore it needs your care more than in other summer months. Remove weeds, loosen the soil in pristvolnyh circles, moisten the soil to the depth of the roots, feed cherry plums with organic fertilizers - a solution of mullein in 7-8 buckets of water or bird droppings in a ratio of 1:20. If organic fertilizer is not present, apply phosphate-potassium mineral fertilizers.

Care for cherry plum in the fall.

After removing the berries, at the end of September, when the leaves start to turn yellow, put organic and mineral fertilizers into the ground for digging. Before the massive leaf fall, spend podzimny moisture recharge irrigation of cherry plum to a depth of 40-60 cm. If you have planted planting seedlings, try to do it in the first decade of October, while the top layer of the soil has not yet frozen.

After planting, the preparation of trees for wintering begins: the bark of the cherry plum is cleared of dead particles, after which you can start whitewashing lime boles and bases of skeletal branches. If there are hollows in the trees, they are closed up, and they remove basal shoots. Fallen leaves, peeling bark and other plant residues need to be collected and burned.

Processing plum.

As a preventive measure, in April plum is sprayed from pests, fungal, viral and bacterial diseases with a one-percent solution of copper or a two-percent solution of iron vitriol. However, before treating plum, make sure that the sap flow has not yet begun, otherwise you can burn the buds. The same prevention should be carried out in the fall, after leaf fall, in order to destroy pathogens and insect pests that hibernated in cracks in the bark or in the soil of the stem of the trunk.

Watering cherry plums.

Cherry plum is a drought-resistant plant, but he also needs moisture. On average, in the absence of natural precipitation, adult cherry plum is watered three times over the summer — after flowering, after the shoots have stopped growing, and after the fruit has acquired the proper color for the variety. In October, water recharge irrigation of cherry plums is carried out before winter. If after a snowless winter comes a dry spring, then you need to water the cherry plum in May. Each adult plant consumes 1.5-2 buckets of water for each year of its life in one irrigation session. Young trees are watered more often - 4-5 times per season.

Feeding plum.

When and how to fertilize plum? The organics in the tree trunk make cherry plum by the autumn at the rate of 10 kg per m², but they do this no more than once every 2-3 years. Mineral fertilizers are required by the plant annually: in the spring, before flowering, nitrogen fertilizers are applied to the tree trunk, and in the summer, in June, potash and phosphate fertilizers. The approximate consumption rate of nitrogen fertilizers (urea, for example) is 15-20 g per m², potash fertilizers (potassium sulfate) are 15-25 g / m², and phosphate fertilizers (superphosphate) 40-50 g / m². In addition to root dressings, non-root fertilizers are carried out twice per season: the first, consisting of a solution of trace elements, is carried out in May, the second, of the same composition - in June, but phosphoric and potash fertilizers are added to it.

Wintering cherry plums.

Adult cherry plum winters without shelter, young saplings need only high hilling of the trunk and compulsory mulching of the trunk circle with a thick layer of peat, humus or compost. Do not interfere with mulch and adult trees. When the snow falls, do not be too lazy to pile up the trunks of the snow with the snow and throw a snowdrift into the tree trunk circle - no frost is terrible under the shelter of the cherry plum.

When to cut cherry plum.

Professionals and experienced amateurs believe that the best time to trim cherry plums is spring. Before the beginning of the swelling of the kidneys, in March-April, it is possible to carry out sanitary pruning and the formation of cherry plum, because at this time there is still no strong sap flow. If you do not have time to do this, and the buds have already begun to unfold, it is better to move the trimming to the next spring.

Sometimes cherry plum is cut in summer, but this trim should be minor and corrective.

How to cut cherry plum.

What are the types of pruning? Sanitary, thinning, shaping and rejuvenating. Sanitary pruning is carried out in order to free the tree from its unnecessary branches. You can hold it if necessary at any time of the year, except for winter. Thinning pruning is usually done in spring or summer to rid the crown of thickening its branches and shoots that do not allow the sun's rays to penetrate to the ripening fruits. Forming pruning crown contributes to good education and ripening of fruits, in addition, the tree with a properly formed crown is easier to care for, it lives longer and is less sick. The rejuvenating pruning of the cherry plum will help in time to replace the old branches with new ones and thereby prolong the life of the plant.

Pruning plum spring.

Cherry plum can be formed in the form of a tree with a cup-shaped crown and in the form of a bush. Not enough winter-hardy varieties of cherry plum are best grown with a bush: the seedling is cut at a height of 15-30 cm from the surface of the plot. The 5-6 branches on the remaining segment are shortened to half a meter and with the help of delays spread them into a position as close as possible to the horizontal position - in this position they are easier to hold in the winter under the snow, and therefore they are not threatened with frostbite and long and painful recovery after winter so you can count on a good harvest.

The height of the cherry plum can be 40–50 cm — at this height, the lower skeletal branches of the cherry plum are protected by snow in winter. But some gardeners prefer to form a stem with a height of 80-120 cm, arguing that small branches of trees with a low stem deform and break small branches, and wounds remain on the tree during the sinking of snowdrifts and melting snow. That is, you will have to decide for yourself what height of shtamb it is more expedient to shape the cherry plum in terms of your climate.

The best form of crown for a cherry plum grown by a tree is rarefied with longline. The crown of cherry plum is shaped in the shape of a bowl, like a crown of a plum, leaving 5-7 main branches, and cutting the rest into a ring. In the first year above the trunk, only 3 branches are left, located along the trunk at a distance of 15-20 cm from one another, and those that depart from the trunk at an angle of 45-60 º, and between them form an angle of approximately 120 º. For another couple of years, add to the existing branches new ones with the same characteristics. After 2-3 years, the crown formation is completed, and the top of the conductor is cut flush with the third skeletal branch.

In the spring, at the end of March or the beginning of April, besides the formation of crown in young trees, they carry out sanitary and thinning pruning of adult plants — annual branches that thicken the crown are cut out on the ring, and dry and broken shoots and branches are removed. With the entry of cherry plum into fruiting, the growth of its shoots slows down significantly, and you will have less work on pruning.

Pruning cherry plums in the summer.

The branches of the cherry plum grow into the first two years to one and a half, or even two meters, so they will have to be shortened to 60-80 cm, but this is better to do in the summer, because in the places of the cut the intensive growth of the branches begins. After summer pruning from the lateral buds, new fruitful branches will begin to develop.

Preparing the soil for planting

Plant plum start with the choice of location and land preparation. Before landing Garden needs to take into account some points: plum does not tolerate drought, because it is considered a moisture-loving tree, but at the same time its flower buds are less resistant to winter cold and sub-zero temperatures.

Cherry plum will best grow in the south-western part of the garden, on the slope, the western and south-eastern part of the orchard will also suit. Should be consideredso that the terrain is protected from strong winds, frosts, drought, excess moisture and other adverse weather conditions.

Before planting seedlings, organic fertilizers are applied to the earth, including manure or humus, superphosphates and potassium salt are applied, then the plot is dug up. Mineral fertilizers are not applied on chernozem soils, as there is no benefit from this.

On soils that are not as fertile as chernozems, the amount of fertilizer applied depends on the degree of their fertility. Soils with increased acidity lime. In the landing pit make all the nutrients, except manure.

Selection of seedlings

Cherry plum trees Both annuals and two-year-olds are planted in the ground. Before buying them you need to pay attention to the root system, it must be strong and powerful, and have 5 main roots, the length of which is equal to 25-30 cm.

Graft trees are also planted, they enter fruiting early and recover much faster after frost.

Seedling preparation

Cherry plum root system, before planting in your garden, you need to carefully inspect. All sick, damaged, dried and infected roots are removed with a garden shears. The remaining healthy roots are also slightly trimmed, i.e., pruned.

Pruning sapling roots should pay attention on its color, if it is brown, then you need to remove it so that it is white, that is, to the place where the healthy root begins.

The next step, after trimming the roots, they need to dip in the mash. This will prevent the risk of drying, will restore the balance of lost moisture during transportation or improper storage of seedlings. Prepare it from a mixture of mullein and clay, but you can just from the ground.

The root system will be useful to soak in the Aktara solution, but it can also be used in another soil insecticide, which contributes to the protection of plants from pests, including the cockchafer, the wireworm.

Landing pit

Cherry plum tree will best grow on loamy soils with weak acidity. The groundwater level should be at least 1.5 meters deep from the ground surface.

A planting hole is dug up about 60 cm wide and up to 80 cm deep. If the soil is poor, the width of the hole increases to 70 cm. The preparation of the soil depends on the type of soil. If a sandy soils - the bottom of the pit is advised to fall asleep with a layer of clay, which is 15 cm thick.

For drainage, on wet soils, the bottom of the pit is laid out with rubble, broken brick or coarse sand. The drainage layer should be about 15 cm. Pits are dug up at a distance of 3 meters from each other.

The dug pit is fertilized. Humus, superphosphate, potassium chloride or wood ash are introduced into it. On poor soils, the amount of fertilizer is increased by 50%. To reduce soil acidity, one kilogram of lime is poured into each pit.

Cherry plum is planted so that the root neck remains 10 cm higher than the ground level. Be sure to ground the ground and formed the hole for irrigation. After planting a tree it is cut.

Landing pattern

The interval between cherry plum seedlings directly depends on the climate where the trees grow, on the condition of the soil, i.e. fertility. In the southern locality on fertile soil, plum is planted at a distance of 4 meters from each other, and between rows 5, in the northern regions, 3 and 5 meters, respectively. Very close, so to speak, thicker, trees should not be planted.

At first, this seems like a bright prospect, saving space, you can plant more trees of different varieties, but when they grow, there is little space and they develop poorly.

Depending on the type of cherry plum and tree crown, itsriniato planted in a certain pattern: strong-growing trees 7 m between trees and 4 m between rows, middle - 5 m at a distance from each other, between rows 3 meters, and low-growing, respectively 4 and 1.5 meters.

Landing dates

Cherry plum planted in the fall and spring. It is important to have time to plant trees in early spring, before the beginning of April, while the plants are dormant, i.e. before budding, and in autumn it is necessary to have time to mid-September, at least one month before the first frost.

During late planting in the spring, the tree will often hurt and lag behind, and late planting in the fall can adversely affect the root system, it freezes out, since the plum tree does not have time to take root.

Глубина посадки

Корневая шейка саженца алычи, после того как почва осядет, должна всегда оставаться на уровне земли. Если посадить не очень глубоко, корни оголяются, и увеличивается образование порослей. But if you overdo it and plant it too deeply, then the risk of sapling may be inhibited, especially on hard, cold soils.

A slight deepening of the root collar on sandy and pebble soils is allowed, it is there that the negative effect of overheating of the soil, lack of moisture affects the cherry plum seedlings.

Departure after landing

The cherry plum tree, after planting, needs abundant watering, whether it is raining outside or not. Watering the trees 2-3 times, in spring and summer. Under one tree pour 4 buckets of water. The following watering is carried out in June, July and September. The land beneath the plants is loosened and weeded.

A complete and proper care consists in the timely application of fertilizers that affect the yield and growth of the tree. But, in the first year of growth, the plant is not fed, the amount of fertilizer that was applied at the time of planting is quite enough.

Under cherry plum, three times throughout the growing season fertilize: with the arrival of spring in March, at the end of May - at the beginning of June, during the period of growth of ovaries, and the third - in July or August, when laying buds for a new crop. Gardeners are advised to use nitrogen fertilizers.

In the second year Growth plum fed fertilizer with a nitrogen content. In the fourth year, they are fed with organic and phosphorus-potassium salts, they are introduced in the autumn during the garden digging.

To the most basic care items for cherry plum can be attributed:

• Weed control.

• Grounding the soil around the hole.

• Soil mulching. Peat, compost or humus mixed with chalk or dolomite flour is used.

• Fight against diseases and pests.

Pest and disease protection

Cherry plum suffer from such diseases, like gray rot (monoliosis), brown spot, smallpox, rust, gum treatment.

Brown spot appears on the leaves in the form of spots, the leaves gradually dry and fall off. Creep treatment is manifested in already diseased plants. The gray rot affects shoots that fade over time, the fruit of the tree rot, and a gray growth is formed in their place.

With smallpox, various spots appear on the leaves, the color becomes green instead of green - marble, the fruits take on a completely different unnatural shape, and spice ahead of time. A disease like rust appears on the streaks of a leaflet in the form of dark spots, then they fall off, and the tree can die even from a slight frost.

Cherry plum infect such insects as a saplings, western Gypsy bark beetle, downy silkworm, moth.

Although cherry plum is considered resistant to various diseases, fungal diseases also have a negative effect on it. It is powdery mildew, monilial burn. To protect the plant, it is necessary to carry out sanitary preventive measures, i.e., burn and remove infected branches and shoots, keep tidings clean, remove old bark and infected fruits, rake fallen leaves and get rid of weeds. Wounds on a tree trunk are cleaned and disinfected with copper sulfate solution.

Tree formation

In the first year, after planting, form a crown of cherry plum. It includes a certain number of skeletal branches, their density, the formation of branches of the second and third order and the trees that bear fruit. When forming the crown of a plant, pruned, shortened and thinned cuttings.

U cherry plum form four kinds of crowns - without tiered, rarefied and tiered, half-flat and flat. But other types of crowns are also used - hedge and palmetta. Mostly trees are pruned in the form of a non-tiered crown and a cup-shaped crown.

Cherry plum cut off and in the spring, and in the summer, and in the fall. But, it is right and best to prune trees in spring, before budding starts, somewhere in March or April. Deleting branches during this period is almost painless. And from the cut branches the juice does not flow, and they heal faster.

Summer pruning carry out only when small correction is necessary, or in the sanitary purposes. Cut dry and unnecessary branches, and those that grow inside the crown.

Autumn pruned cherry plum only for sanitary purposes. You can not worry too much that the removal of excessive branches, somehow affect the fruiting. Sick and dry branches are sure to be cleaned, as they can be carriers of pests and insects can live in them that negatively affect the tree. Cut down the fallen branches, and those that no longer bear fruit.

Every year, under the plum tree, with the onset of late autumn, organic fertilizers are applied, about half a bucket of humus or compost per 1 m². And in early spring, as soon as the trees ottsvetut, and in mid-summer, the plant needs urea, it is brought into the tree trunk. At the next feeding make potassium sulfate, about 30 grams. on 1 m².

Young trees, after planting in the ground and pruning, watered. 4 buckets of water are considered to be the norm for watering on one tree. The following watering is carried out in the spring and early summer, approximately the number of waterings is 3 times.

In winter, frost has a negative effect on the roots and bark of the tree. The bright sun in winter can burn alyche, and winter precipitation in the form of snow or ice on the branches can break them.

Root system mulch leaves in late autumn. Mulching is done on half of the bayonet of the shovel, hay, sawdust, peat are added - all this is mixed with the ground, and wood ash is added, which is able to protect the tree from fungus and mice.

Tree trunk begin to mulch before the onset of the first frost, is not recommended before, as the bark can melt and become damaged. The first snow is thrown over the mulch with a shovel, making a snowdrift as high as possible, which is a guarantee of the harmful effects of frost.

Soil stop processing until early September. A good winter over the tree can help phosphate fertilizer, it is made in August. Do not forget about whitewashing tree trunks, its fork and skeletal shoots. For the winter, plum is covered with spruce leaves, wrapped with sacking.

How to multiply plum.

Some forms of cherry plum reproduce under the bones, but more often they use vegetative methods such as reproduction by root shoots, grafting and grafting. It is possible to propagate own-rooted seedlings by shoots, root or green cuttings, but green cuttings require a special installation that produces mist, so we will not dwell on it, as well as on the seed method. With the seed method of breeding cherry plum, the varietal characteristics of the parent plant in seedlings are not preserved. The seed method is also not used for growing rootstocks, since during reproduction of cherry plum it is better to take plum saplings of such varieties as Renklod kolkhoz, Volga Beauty, Eurasia 21, Moscow Hungarian, as well as saplings, apricot, felt cherry and thorns when breeding cherry plum.

Cultivation of cherry plum undergrowth.

This method is the easiest to perform. The best material is shoots that are far from the mother plant, because such offspring has a well-developed root system, unlike those that grow close to a tree or shrub. In early spring, dig out the place where the offspring moves away from the root of the tree, and chop off the mother root, stepping along it to the side of the tree 15-20 cm. The cut place on the root of the tree should be even, and do not forget to process it with garden pitch before digging .

Digged shoots, if developed, are planted in a permanent place. If the process is small and weak, plant it in a well-fertilized, loose soil for growing, and when it gets stronger and grows up, transplant it to the planned location.

Reproduction plum root cuttings.

Root cuttings are harvested in early spring or autumn from the most fruitful trees. Roots of young trees are excavated at a distance of 70-100 cm from the trunk, in adults - at a distance of 1-1.5 m. Dig up roots 5-15 mm thick and cut from them cuttings about 15 cm long. If you harvest root cuttings in the autumn, fold them in a box with sawdust and store until spring at a temperature of 0-2 ºC. In the spring, in early May, the cuttings are planted in loose soil in such a way that the upper end is deeper by 3 cm, and the lower end is deeper. The distance between the segments of the root in a row is observed within 8-10 cm. The area with planting is covered with a film, and on sunny days with sackcloth. The soil is kept slightly moist. A month later, the film can be removed. Saplings are grown from root cuttings before planting for a permanent place for one or two years.

Cultivation of cherry plum inoculation.

For the implementation of reproduction in this way it is necessary to have a varietal stalk as a graft and a stock - a plant to be grafted. Stocks can be grown from overgrowths or from bones. How to grow seedlings from overgrowths, you already know. And to grow a stock from the stone plum or thorns can be planted in a moist and loose soil in late September. In spring, the sowing area is slightly harrowed, and in May shoots appear, which are watered all summer, and the soil around them is loosened and weeded. The rootstocks of the seed will be ready for grafting in the summer, in July or August of the following year, when sap flow is active in the trees.

The leaves are cut on the day of vaccinations from branches 30-40 cm long, not shorter. Inoculation is carried out in several ways: in a T-shaped incision, in addition to this, by means of an improved copulation, behind the cortex and rotap.

Before budding, the rootstocks are watered to stimulate sap flow, and the stem is wiped from dust with a damp sponge. All leaves are removed from grafts, leaving only 5 mm long petioles, after which the kidney with such petioles is cut with a sharp knife along with a strip of bark about 3 cm long and at least 5 mm wide. On the stock, 3-4 cm above the ground, make a T-shaped incision, gently bend the bark at the intersection of the short and long section and insert a shield under it (a kidney with a strip of bark), after which the bark is pressed tightly to the wood and the inoculation is tied tape or tape so that the kidney itself with the rest of the stem is not closed.

The most common use of budding in the application, because it is easier to perform and gives consistently good results. The method of improved copulation is good when the cutting and stock of the same thickness. If the stock is thicker than a scion, methods of grafting rotates and bark are recommended.

Diseases of cherry plum

Diseases and pests of cherry plums are the same as those of the plum, its closest relative, and in order to recognize and cope with them in time, it is necessary to know the description of all harmful insects and the symptoms of each disease.

Perforated spotting or klyasterosporioz, appears on the leaves of the plant brown spots with a dark border. The affected tissues fall out, forming holes in the leaves. Small dirty-red specks, appearing on the fruit, deform them. The branches are also covered with reddish spots, under which the crust cracks, and gum starts to stand out from the cracks.

Control measures. Destroy all plant residues, do not leave them under the trees for the winter. Treatment of cherry plum: in the phase of bud coloring, after the end of flowering and again two weeks later, treat the cherry plum with one-percent Bordeaux liquid or Hohm according to the instructions. If you are dealing with a strong defeat, do another treatment three weeks before harvest. As a preventive measure against the disease in spring, before bud break, cherry plum is sprayed with a 3% solution of ferrous sulfate. Do not allow the crown to thicken, timely thinning pruning.

Milky luster and false milky luster look like a silver bloom on the leaves of cherry plum. The false form of the disease and the true milky luster have a different nature: the first disease is a consequence of the freezing of cherry plum in the winter, and with good care, watering and fertilizer the tree will recover within a year or three. This milky luster is a fungal disease that penetrates deep into the cherry plum and causes stem rot. The leaves become brown by mid-summer, plum dries.

Control measures. In the fight against fungal disease, the affected branch of cherry plum is subject to immediate removal and destruction, the cut is treated with a one-percent solution of copper sulfate, and after that with a garden pitch. As a preventive measure, spring and autumn spraying of cherry plums is carried out with copper-containing preparations, all sawings and cuts are treated with garden pitch, and tree trunks and skeletal branches with lime.

Monilioz, or gray rot Covers the surface of the fruit with gray pads containing fungal spores. Shoots and branches turn brown and wither, as if burned with something, growths form on the bark.

Control measures. Healthy fruits become infected with moniliasis from patients hanging from them on the same branch, so sick fruits should be immediately cut off and burned, as well as shoots affected by gray rot. Prior to budding, treat the cherry plum with a 3% Bordeaux mixture, and before disclosing the flowers and immediately after flowering, with substitutes for Bordeaux liquid of the same effect.

Marsupial disease, or plums pockets - a fungal disease in which the bones in the fruit are not formed, and the fruits themselves grow, deform and become covered with a powdery coating. The pulp of diseased fruits is wrinkled and greenish. Affected shoots bend and swell.

Control measures. Patients shoots and cherry plums are removed and burned. For preventive purposes, plum is treated as from moniliosis.

Coccomycosis appears in early summer with small reddish-brown specks on the upper side of the leaves, which merge with each other as the disease progresses. On the underside of the leaves, a mealy pinkish patina appears. The leaves turn yellow and fall prematurely, the fruits stop growing and dry.

Control measures. Collect and destroy fallen leaves and fruits. In early spring, before the start of sap flow, and in the fall after leaf fall, process cherry plum and tree trunks with Homeom or 1% Bordeaux liquid.

Pests plum

Most often, plums are affected by such pests from the world of insects:

Brown fruit mite - from its activity, cherry plum leaves become brown and fall off, the process of laying the buds of the future harvest slows down.

Control measures. Clean the trunk of cherry plum from dead bark, before the buds swell, during the swelling and during the budding period, treat the tree with Karate or Fufanon preparations.

Slimy sawfly eats leaves, leaving only the veins from them.

Control measures. Collect in the fall from the site and destroy the plant remains of cherry plum. In July or at the beginning of August, when the sawfly larvae hatch, carry out the mining of the cherry plum Fufanon or Novaktion.

Yellow plum sawfly - the caterpillars of this pest eat the flesh of the fruit and eat the bone. Young larvae damage the ovary.

Control measures. Adult sawflies need to be harvested by hand or shaken from a tree to a spread film. Before flowering and after it, spray the tree with Fufanon or Novaktion.

Oriental moth gnaws the moves in the young escape, and reaching the lignified areas, moves to another escape. Damaged shoots dry and break. Damaged caterpillars and fruit pulp.

Control measures. Trees immediately after flowering and after harvesting are treated with a solution of 500-700 g of salt in 10 liters of water. Approximately 7 liters of brine will be needed for processing an adult tree, and 1.5-2 liters for processing a young tree.

Plum moth penetrates into the fruit, closing the entrance hole of the web with pieces of pulp. The caterpillar eats the flesh of the young fruits and the soft bone, in mature fruits it does not damage the bone, limiting itself to eating the flesh and filling its passages with excrement. Fruits in which the plum moth caterpillar lives, turn purple and quickly fall.

Control measures. Destroy the fallen leaves and fruits, clean the cherry plum from the dead bark, treat the cherry plum with insecticides.

Plum aphid feeds on the cell sap of leaves and young shoots of cherry plum; as a result, the leaves roll up, turn yellow and fall off. Shrink tops and shoots.

Control measures. In the budding stage, trees are sprayed with insecticides, such as Karbofos or Sumition, for example. When processing the composition must necessarily fall on the lower side of the leaves.

Subcortical moth gnaws the tunnels in the wood, and this can kill not only individual branches, but the whole tree.

Control measures. Damaged shoots are cut and burned, sections are treated with garden pitch.

How to deal with cherry plum

Plum, cherry and cherry plum are often given root growth, with which it is necessary to fight, otherwise it will capture the entire garden. How to do it? If you do not need a tree that gives growth, cut it, drill a few holes in the stump as close as possible to the juice-conducting layer and pour the Tornado or Potassium Ammonium Nitrate solution into the holes. Top saw cut with a piece of plastic or film. After 5-7 days, slightly drill through the same holes and fill in the next dose of the preparation and repeat the same procedure a week later. When the shoots die, do not rush to uproot the stump, make sure that there are no roots left that the preparation destroying them did not have time to reach.

If you do not want to ruin a tree, you will have to fight the hedge Some gardeners recommend digging shoots and chopping them at the place of separation from the root of the mother plant, but experience suggests that it is better not to do this, because in place of one offspring cut at depth, it grows two or three. Cut the growth at the level of the surface of the plot, and if the grass grows in the circle, mow the growth with the grass. Or grow varieties of cherry plum, not giving shoots.

Varieties cherry plum

Cherry plum varieties differ in ripening terms: early varieties ripen in late July or early August, medium ripening varieties in mid-August, and later ones ripen in late August or September. The size of the tree varieties are tall, sredneroslye and stunted. According to the method of pollination - self-fertile and self-fruitful.

Early varieties of cherry plum.

The most popular varieties of early cherry plum are:

  • Found - productive and stable samobesplodny grade of high winter hardiness, resistant to diseases, with red-purple fruits, large or medium size, reaching a mass of 31 g, with orange fibrous malosechnoy pulp,
  • Flint - self-infertile drought-resistant variety, almost not affected by diseases, with fruits weighing up to 29 g of dark-violet color with a waxy coating and red color of a dense low-pulp with poorly separated bone,
  • Gift to St. Petersburg - self-infertile, consistently fruitful, winter-hardy variety, characterized by the ability to quickly recover from mechanical damage. The fruits of the plants of this variety are very small, weighing up to 12 g, yellow-orange in color with a weak wax coating and bright yellow, juicy, fine-fibrous pulp of a sweet-sour taste. The bone from the pulp is separated badly
  • Yarylo - a very early variety with round, shiny red fruits, medium size, weighing up to 35 g and juicy, dense, yellow flesh of excellent sweet-sour taste with a half-separated bone,
  • Monomah - fruitful skoroplodny grade with violet fruits weighing up to 25 g with sweet, juicy, fibrous pulp of red color and well separated bone.

Average varieties of cherry plum.

The best varieties of medium ripening include the following:

  • Huck - winter-hardy, consistently fruitful samobosplodny srednerosly variety with a thick flat-rounded crown and large yellow fruits weighing up to 35 g with a yellow and dense flesh of sweet-sour taste. Stone separates badly
  • Sarmatka - winter-hardy, disease-resistant, self-infesting variety with medium-sized ovate purple-red fruits with yellow flesh of medium density and sweet-sour taste. The bone from the pulp is separated badly
  • Sigma - a highly productive and winter-hardy variety with large yellow fruits reaching 35 g in weight. The flesh is yellow, dense, sweet-sour,
  • Abundant - a highly productive, self-fruitful variety with fruits weighing up to 40 g of red-purple color with a waxy coating and orange dense medium-fibrous pulp of medium juiciness,
  • Lama - a tree with red leaves and large dark raspberry fruits weighing up to 40 g with a juicy, fragrant dark red flesh of a sour-sweet taste. Stone moves away well from the pulp. The variety is self-productive, but high-yielding and winter-hardy,

Late varieties of cherry plum.

Popular varieties of cherry plum, ripening closer to the fall and in September, include the following:

  • Late comet - very winter hardy and fruitful variety with dark red fruits weighing up to 30 g with fragrant red pulp of sweet-sour taste,
  • Chuk - low-growing, samobosplodny tree with a compact crown, giving maroon fruits weighing up to 28 g with orange dense, fragrant and juicy flesh of sweet-sour taste. Stone from the pulp is separated badly. The variety is fruitful and disease resistant,
  • Column-like - It is a winter-hardy hybrid between large-fruited cherry plum and cherry-bleached Hiawat, characterized by tall stature and compact crown. The fruits of this hybrid are very large - weighing up to 40 g, dark red with a waxy coating and fragrant, juicy pink flesh of medium density and a pleasant taste,
  • Melon - srednerosly samobesplodny grade, resistant to diseases and pests, with very large fruits weighing up to 45 g of a dark red color with a waxy bloom and yellow medium dense sugary flesh of excellent taste with a delicate aroma,
  • Golden autumn - srednerosly winter-hardy variety with a spindle-shaped crown and small golden fruits weighing up to 20 g, which do not crumble even after leaf fall. The flesh of the fruit is yellow, pleasant taste with an almond shade.

Well established such varieties and hybrids of cherry plum: Apricot, early appearance of fruit, peach, Kuban Comet, Globe, Amersi, Pearl, Stanley, Olga, Purple, Purple dessert, Anastasia, Alenka, Lykhny, President, Vision, Favorite Mlieva, tent, carmine, Vetraz, Nasaloda, Pchelnikovskaya, Seedling Rocket, Krasa Orlovschiny, Timiryazevskaya, General, Ariadna, Karminna Zhukova, Rubinovaya and others.

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