From the fruit crops of the middle zone, the stone fruits more than the others suffer from unfavorable growing conditions. Therefore, the area of distribution of the culture of cherries and cherries is directly dependent on the winter hardiness of the tree and flower buds.
Currently, as a result of fruitful breeding work in a number of research institutions and, in particular, in the GNU VNIISP, many promising cherries with high yields, short stature, high taste, resistance to diseases and other valuable properties have been obtained. However, winter hardiness of varieties requires special study.
Stone crop varieties must have sufficient winter hardiness that allows them to tolerate not only typical but also severe winters. Winter hardiness of flower buds depends on a number of factors: autumn and spring frosts, severe winter frosts, recurrent cold after thaws and winter desiccations. Along with these factors, the radiation-chemical load, the emergence of new diseases, the summer droughts that have become more frequent in recent years, have a negative impact.
For cherries, a characteristic feature is the lack of winter hardiness of flower buds, which affects the yield loss. This is due to the fact that cherry fruit buds have a short dormant period and usually come out of it in the second half of January, with sharp fluctuations in temperature in the second half of winter they freeze slightly [2, 3,4].
Sweet cherry is a less adapted crop for growing conditions, compared with cherry. It is more demanding to heat, less winter-hardy than cherry. In cherries, a longer transition to a state of rest and a sharp decrease in temperature in late November - early December leads to severe freezing of trees.
Identification of resistance to the main types of winter damage was the purpose of this work to assess the winter resistance of various varieties used field test method.
Methods and objects of research
The studies were conducted on experimental plots of the department of plant breeding and sorting of stone fruit crops of the State Scientific Institution All-Russian Institute of Fruit Plant Breeding of the Russian Agricultural Academy (GNU VNIIPK Russian Agricultural Academy). The objects of the research were collection plantings of stone fruit crops of the GNU VNIISPK. A total of 55 varieties of cherries and 17 varieties of cherries were included in the study. Assessment of the degree of damage to the kidneys and tissues was carried out in 2 or 3 decades of March after growing 1-2 year old branches after passing through dangerous frosts. The freezing of wood and the core was evaluated on cross sections of the branches according to the browning intensity of the tissues (from light to dark brown) from 0 to 5.
Figure 1. - Evaluation of winter hardiness of cherry and sweet cherry trees in field conditions (2006)
Figure 2 - Evaluation of winter hardiness of flower buds in the field (2009. 2010)
Table 1. Differentiation of varieties by winter-resistance groups of flower buds
Shokoladnitsa, Student, Lyubskaya, Trofimovskaya, Orley, Orlitsa, Joy, Relay, Mtsenskaya, Iosika Metti, Rastorguevskaya, Igritskaya, Robin, Volochaevka
Putinka, Tikhonovskaya, Nepolodskaya, Excellent Kolesnikova, Livenskaya, Present for teachers, Cornelian, In memory of Mashkin, Zhukovskaya, Farewell, Businka, Shpanka, Griot Ostgeimsky, Vladimirskaya, Ufekhherty Furthish, Vianok, Cinderella, In memory of Sakharov
Trosnyanskaya, Dawn of the East
Montmorency, Oryol Early, Muse, Gurtyevka, seedling from Kharkov, Veteranka, Zaryanka, Zhivitsa, Banquet, Co-member, Novella, Excellent Venyaminova, Nochka, Turgenevka
Oryol amber, Fatezh, Red dense, Donetsk giant, Oryol pink, Odrinka
Brunette, Bistrin, Petrova birthmark, Competitor, Updated, Youth, Persistent, Novodvorskaya
Poetry, Adeline, mutant Oryol rose, Oryol fairy, Raditsa, Bryansk rose, Chernyshevsky seedling
Chermashnaya, Amazon, Muscat
The freezing of the vascular-carrying bundles feeding the fruit buds was carried out by examining slices made along the kidney and was scored on a scale of freezing wood.
During the years of observation, the most extreme weather conditions differed in 2005. 2006 In 2006, the temperature dropped to -36.5 ° C in February and -24.50 ° C in March, which led to the death of 100% of the generative buds in almost all studied cherry varieties and sweet cherry. As for the freezing of trees, in spring 2006, after taking into account the damage, the group of high-resistant varieties of Cherry was 12.5%, sweet cherries - 10%, hardy - 29.1%, 30%, medium-resistant - 43.7%, 50%, non-resistant 14 , 7, 10% respectively (Figure 1).
The subsequent growing season was distinguished by favorable weather conditions for stone fruit. Late autumn and winter periods of 2006/2007 characterized by a long period of low positive temperatures of +1.1, +0.5, + 1.2, +2.6 (November, December, 1st and 2nd decade of January). The third decade of January and February differed minimum temperatures from -24.5 to -27.2 ° C. These differences and the consequences of the extreme previous year left a definite imprint on the safety of fruit buds in 2006/2007. the number of varieties in which the number of dead buds was less than 25% included: student cherry, chocolate, lyubskaya, gift to teachers, excellent venyaminova, Erdi large-fruited, anthracite, bystrinka, zhukovskaya, iosik meggi, polyanka, jubilee 3000, trofimovskaya, rastorguev mary Orley, Novella, Livenskaya, Vladimirskaya, Orlitsa, In memory of Sakharov, Griot Ostgeimsky, Zhivitsa, Cinderella, Zaryanka, Mtsenskaya, Relay, In memory of Mashkin, Joy, Farewell, Bead, Shpanka, Nepolodskaya, Igritskaya, Malinovka, cherries - Donetsk Velikan, Kompakt, Nepolodskaya, Igritskaya, Malinovka, cherries - Donetsk Velikan, Kompakt, Nakolodskaya, Igritskaya, Malinovka, cherries - Donetsk Velikan, Kompakt, Nakolodskaya, Igritskaya, Malinovka, cherries - Donetsk Velikan, Kompakt, Nakolodskaya, Igritskaya, Malinovka, cherries - Donetsk Velikan, Kompakt, Nakolodskaya, Igritskaya, Robin, cherries - Donetsk Velikan, Kompakt, Kapastnaya, Berezinka, Shpanka, Nepolodskaya, Igritskaya, Malinovka, cherries - Donetsk Velikan, Kompak Raditsa , Baby, Chernyshevsky seedling, Amazon, Oryol amber, Oryol pink, Trosnyanskaya.
Climatic conditions of winters 2007/2008 and 2008/2009 there was no significant damage to the stone plantations; damage to the flower buds and freezing of the trees was not observed. Weather conditions 2009/2010 with the sum of average daily air temperatures of -1024.4 ° C and minimum temperatures of -31.8 ° C in January, -21.8 ° C in February, and -20.5 ° C in March allowed differentiating varieties according to the winter resistance of flower buds (table one).
Thus, the group of high-resistant varieties for the safety of flower buds was 25% for cherries, 0% for cherries, 32.1% for winter-hardy, 11.1%, medium-resistant for 25%, 33.3%, low-resistant for 14.5 %, 38.9%, non-resistant - 3.6%, 16.6%, respectively (Figure 2) Freezing of tissues in 2005/2006. Cherry varieties showed the most pronounced damage to wood and the core, as well as vascular bundles under the kidneys on annual growths.
In 2009/2010 damages were noted in the cherry varieties Miracle Cherry and Orcolia, cherries - Chermashny, Adeline Poetry, Raditsa, Bryansk Pink, Kid. Thus, as a result of the field studies, differences in the adaptability of the varieties of cherries and cherries have been identified, taking into account the climatic conditions of extreme winters. But the problem of winter hardiness remains unresolved until the end and requires further study with the simulation of factors under controlled conditions for the components of winter hardiness, taking into account the genetic potential of resistance to adverse wintering conditions.
The varieties belonging to the high-resistance and winter-hardy groups are recommended for industrial and amateur gardening and can be used as a valuable material in the selection of cherries and sweet cherries for winter resistance.
Varieties of middle-resistant group are recommended to be used in areas with milder climatic conditions.
1. Alekhina E.M. Winter hardiness of sweet cherry varieties // Genetic selection problems of fruit plants resistance to unfavorable biotic and abiotic factors: Coll. reports X VI Michurin readings. - Tambov, 1998. - p. 145-147.
2. Enikeev Kh. K. Results of cherry cultivar studies // Selection and cultivation of fruit and berry crops. - M., 1966. - p. 167-207.
3. Kolesnikova, A.F. Selection and some biological characteristics of cherries in the middle zone of the RSFSR. - Orel, 1975. - 328 p.
4. Kolesnikova A.F. Cherries, sweet cherries. - Kharkov: Folio, Moscow: AST, 2003. - 255 p.
5. Program and methods of sorting fruit, berry and nut crops / ed. E.N. Sedov and T.P. Ogoltsova. - Orel: VNIISPK, 1999. - 608 p.
(Modern gardening number 2, 2010)
To assess the resistance to the main types of winter damage field tests were conducted. As a result of the study, it turned out that Putinka cherry is in the 2nd stability group, the death of color buds due to frost was estimated at 10-25%. Thus, this variety can be considered winter-hardy.
The freezing of trees and flower buds is insignificant. However, the most suitable climate for this cherry is temperate.
Important! It should be borne in mind that the color buds are sensitive to sudden changes in temperature.
Putinka is slightly affected by coccomycosis (a fungal disease in which small red dots appear on the leaves) and moniliosis (another name for the disease is gray rot, affects the fruit). These diseases lead to crop loss, death of the tree and threaten epidemics on the site. Get rid of the disease is not easy and for treatment requires repeated treatment of plants. Only a small percentage of varieties of cherries are resistant to both diseases.
Usually, pollination occurs naturally, with the help of bees: insects sit on flowers and thus spread pollen throughout the garden.
Some varieties independently pollinated by their own pollen. Such cherries are called self-fruited. This is due to the extraordinary structure of the flower: the pistil and stamen grow the same height. These varieties of cherries include:
Opposite to them are the self-infertile cherries, and most of these varieties. For example, one of the oldest varieties of cherries is Zhukovskaya. For pollination of such species, self-bearing varieties growing alongside are needed. Another option is artificial pollination.
Putinka's cherry is partly self-fruited.
Putinka's cherry is partly self-fruited. This means that it will stably bear fruit and without special pollinator varieties.
Partial samoplodnye cherries form only 5-19% of the fruits of the total number of flowers. For more yield, it is still better to grow nearby pollinator varieties.
To select the cherry pollinator, you must choose a variety with the same flowering period. For a good pollination, it is recommended to grow three different varieties at once, given that they will need to bloom at the same time.
Additional information: Many novice gardeners are wondering: can a cherry pollinate a sweet cherry? This is a frequent and successful practice. For pollinating cherries with a cherry, the Lyubskaya variety is well suited. This cherry is completely self-fruited, and is guaranteed to contribute to a good harvest.
The converse is also true: the pollination of cherries can be done with the help of sweet cherry. A universal pollinator can be Iput, a sweet cherry.
To get a good harvest, it is important to understand how cherry is pollinated: by insect pollinators or by the wind. In fact, and so and so, but strong gusts of wind will prevent insects from making pollination.
If, under the conditions fulfilled, a cherry still produces a bad harvest, it is worth knowing how to pollinate cherry flowers artificially. One of the ways is attracting bees. To do this, spray the tree with a sweet solution, mixing granulated sugar with water in the following proportions: 1 tbsp. l on 1 liter. You can replace sugar with honey.
Another way is pollination of cherries by hand. To do this, you need to do the work of the bee: first collect the pollen from the flowers, and then apply to the stigmas of the pistils. For this it will be convenient to use a brush. The manual method is the most time consuming and is unlikely to pollinate every flower, but you need to try to use the majority.
Pollinate need to manual
Putinka Cherry: variety description
Trees of medium size, up to three meters. This type does not belong to felt. The krone has an average thickness, the form is drooping. Shoots forms a bare, brown-brown color, arched shape.
The leaves of Putinki are opaque, have an obovate appearance (the egg-shaped leaf attached to the petiole by a narrow part), light green in color, have wrinkles. The leaf plate is flat, curved downward, has a pointed base and a gradually pointed apex; it has no fluffiness. The edge of the leaf is bicusophilus. Umbrella inflorescence, white flowers, medium size, pinkish.
Putinka refers to the large-fruited cherries: the weight of the fruit reaches 7 g (on average - 5.6 g). For comparison: the average weight of the Zhukovsky variety is only 4 g. One-dimensional, have a wide-round shape, color is closer to dark maroon, the skin is smooth. The flesh is dark red, juicy, sweet-sour to the taste. The stone of the cherry is smooth, round, easily extracted from the pulp.
The fruits received a tasting score of 4.6 points. The chemical composition of the fruit: 16.9% soluble solids, 10.4% sugars, 1.1% organic acids, 6.2 mg / 100 g of ascorbic acid.
Growing cherry Putinka
It is better to plant in sunny places. The soil is preferably fertile and well drained. Watering should be moderate, since the cherries have a high drought resistance. The tree especially needs watering during the flowering and ripening of berries, as well as after harvesting.
Favorable time for planting cherries - spring, mid-April.
Important! If you plant a tree in the summer or autumn, it is likely that it will not have time to get stronger by the winter and will simply die.
Seedlings should be placed at a distance of 3-4 meters from each other (no closer than 2.5 meters). The pit for planting is dug about 60 cm wide and at least 50 cm deep. Organic fertilizers (compost, humus) can be added to the pit. Before planting, pay attention to the roots of the seedling: the damaged areas should be cut off.
After planting, it is worth digging around a cherry for a small moat for watering. If the roots are bare during irrigation, they should be covered with earth.
Important! Do not allow stagnant moisture. It should be noted that by the autumn you need to drip all the watering ditches, so as not to provoke congestion and stagnation of melt water.
Fertilizers and dressing is better to make in the fall. You can use organic (manure, compost, bird droppings) and special organic fertilizers (humophos, peat ammonium fertilizers, sodium and ammonium humates, etc.). In the spring light nitrogen supplements are possible. All fertilizers are applied in small quantities.
Additional Information! For the formation of a more bushy crown, branches longer than 40 cm must be cut off. This will also contribute to better access of light and wind to the berries.
Pruning should be done in the fall, because at this time the tree is at rest.
The advantages of this variety
Summing up, it is worth noting briefly the advantages of Putinki cherry:
▪ berries are the most large-fruited (more than 5 g),
▪ good resistance to coccomycosis,
▪ resistance to monilial burn.
Currently there are very few varieties of cherries that are equally resistant to both diseases (the last two points). This is undoubtedly a big plus of this variety.
This variety is considered young - it was zoned in 2013. In fact, it is a hybrid of the lines "Excellent Venyaminova" and "Anthracite". This selection gave good results, which you now see.
This cherry is distinguished by the following features:
- height up to 3 m and average growth rates
- crown average density. She looks wilted and weeping
- bare brown-brown shoots of small size. Their arched shape catches the eye,
- light green leaves with a matte shade and noticeable wrinkles. Form - obovate, with a smooth taper at the tips,
- flat sheet plates that are folded down. "Fluff" is missing,
- umbrella buds with white and pink flowers of medium size.
“Putinka” is large-fruited, and the berries themselves are one-dimensional. The average weight is 5.5-5.6 g, but often ripen to 7 g.
In appearance, they are widely rounded, and in color they are dark red (the tone is close to rich maroon). Smooth skin is medium hard.
The dark red flesh is very juicy. The sweet and sour taste typical for cherries is distinguished by its subtle notes (the "sourness" is felt somewhat weaker than that of other varieties). Medium diameter round bone with a smooth surface separates well from the pulp. Another feature of the fruit - a small number of subcutaneous points, which are almost invisible.
As for the composition, the berries contain about 10-10.5% of sugars and 1% of amino acids. In total with other dry substances (ashes, dietary fibers and vitamins) their share reaches 17% of the total mass.
Winter hardiness and disease resistance
Universal variety is considered relatively winter hardy. It is best suited for wintering in temperate regions.The clear advantage is resistance to diseases and pests. Branches can be threatened with fungal diseases such as moniliosis and coccomycosis (fortunately, this is rare). Cherry is prone to moniliosis. With pests, the situation is approximately the same: aphids, weevils or sawflies appear unless in the case of mass infection of neighboring trees.
Собранные ягоды используют в следующих целях:
- как заготовку для сушки,
- для консервации (соки, джемы, варенье),
- в качестве начинки для вареников и выпечки — запеканок и пирожков, пирогов и тортов и т. д.,
- в ходе приготовления наливок, вина, настоек и прочих спиртных напитков по домашней технологии,
- but that's not all - dark cherries are great for making marshmallows, some are dried in the oven or added to meat (so the roast gets just a chic aroma).