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Lipa - a tree with low susceptibility to pests, excellent honey plant and finishing material

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In the middle of summer, our forests are filled with honey aroma, and the air is hummed by bees. It bloomed Linden - mother, nurse and keeper of the Russian land.

Linden - one of the most revered trees of the Slavs. Names of settlements, forests, mountains, and even female names are often produced.from lindenwhich gave its name to the month of July ("Lipin"- so he is now called in Ukraine).

Linden - a symbol of femininitysoftness and tenderness. It symbolizes the feminine principle, and not only among the Slavic peoples.

Slavs revered linden not only as a sacred tree, but also asmother tree. Linden and feed and obu and cure. Spoon, cup, ladle, tray and other household items, cut from linden. For many centuries, our ancestors walked in lime bastards. And Lipa is a good honey plant.

There are many varieties of linden. The most common linden in our area is the heart-shaped linden.

Where does Lipa grow

Lipu can be seen in forests, gardens, on city boulevards and in parks.

Lipa grows in many countries from Southern Britain and Central Scandinavia to the European part of Russia, the Caucasus, Bulgaria, Italy and Spain. Lipa is growing even in the north in Norway, Finland and the Arkhangelsk region.

Linden is the only Central Russian broad-leaved tree that grows beyond the Urals.

Lipa grows best in warm and fairly humid areas.

What does Lipa look like

Lipu can always be distinguished from other trees. In the summer heart-shaped leaves. When there are no leaves, there are characteristic reddish young sprigs with buds, and soft warm bark. What can I say, Lipa is full of femininity, softness, tenderness, care.

Linden in the forest grows from 10 to 30 meters.

Krona Lipa dense, dense, strongly shading the soil. The leaves are rounded, with a heart-shaped base, finely toothed.

Linden Flowers soft yellow, fragrant, with honey aroma, gathered in inflorescences.

Lipa Seeds small pea-sized fruits, nuts are collected several on separate stalks, and each such stalk is provided with a special wing, thin and rather wide. This wing helps the seeds fly away in winter away from the tree.

When the linden blossoms

The linden is especially good during flowering, when the tree from top to bottom is covered with fragrant flowers.

Blooms linden in June — July. Flowering lasts 10-15 days. At the time when the Lipa is blooming, a surprisingly delicate, delicate honey aroma flows in the air, which is felt far beyond the lime gardens and parks.

Lipa blooms in natural conditions on the 20th year of life, and in plantations - only after 30 years.

Linden in the fall

Early fallin green Limes appear like sunshine. These are separate branches wearing a gold outfit. Until the whole tree is dressed in golden yellow foliage. On sunny days, her yellow crowns look especially elegant against a blue sky. And even in late autumn in the linden park is very beautiful. The earth is covered with a carpet of fallen leaves, and against this background black columns of trunks stand out especially sharply.

When the cold winds remove the last garment from the forest and he lurks somewhere in the depths under the rough bark, the Linden seeds still hang nuts, swaying on long legs.

Healing Properties of Linden

Doctors still Ancient Greece and Rome usedLinden blossom for the treatment of a variety of diseases, and its juice - to improve hair growth.

Linden Flowers used for cough, runny nose, bronchitis, kidney and bladder diseases.

Linden Flowers used as a diaphoretic and antipyretic for sore throat, bronchitis, colds, as a sedative for increased nervous excitability. Linden inflorescence extract is also used for mild digestive disorders and metabolic processes.

Linden blossom - a popular disinfectant used in the inflammation of the mouth and throat (for rinsing).

Broth leaves Lipa use when cutting in the stomach and urethra.

Razvarennaya younglinden bark gives mucus that has anti-inflammatory and pronounced analgesic properties. Mucus is used in the form of lotions for burns, inflammation of hemorrhoids and for rheumatic and gouty pains.

Linden application

Lipa Seeds very nutritious and they are consumed in the same way as hazelnuts, walnuts. Of them get the oil, the quality is close to olive, and taste like almond.

FreshLinden leaves used for making salads, and dried added to the dough.

Linden blossom also used instead of tea for brewing with other medicinal plants or with tea.

People began to use lime bark for household purposes a long time ago, from it they wove baskets, bast shoes, baskets and other products.

Lipa is considered to be an excellent honey plant, its honey is called “Lipet” and belongs to the category of high quality.

Linden wood - the most common ornamental tree, which was used by our ancestors.

Lipa - interesting facts

Common Slavic word. The same root as lit.liepa "Linden", Greek lipos "fat". Lipa got a name for sticky buds, leaves and bast. Sometimes Linden leaves secrete so much sticky liquid that it even drips.

Lipa is helpful not only for man but also for the forest! In the fallen leaves of linden there is much calcium that plants need. They are like a kind of forest fertilizer that improves the nutritional properties of the soil. If linden grows with pine treepine grows better than in a pure pine forest.

Linden wood is very soft and easy to process. Its hardness on the Brinell scale is less than 1.8. This property is very useful in the manufacture of linden crafts by hand.

Lipa blooms in natural conditions on the 20th year of life, and in plantations - only after 30 years.

Small-leaved

Another name - heart-shaped linden, due to the shape of the leaves. This species tolerates adverse environmental conditions, including strong winds, drought and frost. The life of the tree can reach 400 years or more. In the process of growth, its trunks are stretched to a height of 25–30 m, the branches form a sprawling crown similar to a tent: the upper shoots are directed upwards, the middle ones are almost horizontal, and the lower ones look down. The leaves have a relatively small size - about 3-4 cm, heart-shaped and pointed tip. The upper part of them is glossy and dark, the back part is lighter, slightly rough to the touch. In June, the small-leaved linden is covered with fluffy panicles of inflorescences of 6–8 flowers, in August small nuts with seeds inside ripen in their place.

This type of linden is distributed throughout Europe, including its Russian part, in the Caucasus, in Western Siberia.

Large leaf

This species is outwardly similar to the small-leaved, but it tolerates severe frosts worse, therefore it grows mainly in the southern regions of Europe and the Caucasus. Many large-leaved limes are true giants and long-livers: they can grow up to 500 years of age. In the cross section of their trunks reach 80-100 cm, and rise to a height of 40 m. The leaves, according to the name of the tree, are large in size - up to 14 cm, the edges with small teeth, slightly pubescent on the back side. The crown is almost pyramidal in shape. The inflorescence of this linden is much smaller than that of the small-leaved: 2-4 flowers each. The flowering period lasts 2 weeks from mid-June.

The large-leaved species prefers fertile soil, but the trees themselves improve its composition: the foliage that falls in the fall quickly disappears, forming humus. This linden is often planted in gardens and parks, as it has high decorative qualities, forms a thick shadow, cleans the air.

Ordinary

This is a hybrid species formed in the natural environment with the help of cross-pollination of large-leaved and small-leaved. According to the properties, the height of the trunk, the shape of the crown resembles relatives, it begins to bloom a few weeks earlier - at the end of May or in the first days of June. The inflorescences are like those of a small-leaved variety, the leaves are dark green, smooth, when flowering they become covered with sweet juice, attracting bees. Common Linden is a good honey plant. In addition, it is excellent for urban landscaping: it withstands gassed air, dust, wind, frost, lack of sunlight, is not sensitive to drought.

Manchu

In Russia, it is found in the forests of the Far East, but, being planted in European regions, it survives well in them. Loves wetted soil, frost-resistant, well tolerated shaded places. The trunks of the Manchurian linden often branch and are relatively low - the limiting height is about 20 m, the crown is spreading and dense. The leaves of this species are very large - 25–30 cm, pubescent, inflorescences are also powerful, consist of 10–12 flowers.

Caucasian

This species prefers a warm humid climate and fertile soils, grows in the forests of the Caucasus, the Crimea, is also found in Asia Minor. The Caucasian linden lives up to 400 years, its trunks in diameter reach more than 1.5 m, trees are stretched to a height of 35–40 m in height. Young shoots have a reddish tint, darkening with age. The leaves are large - up to 15 cm, bright green, slightly pubescent, with a lighter shade on the underside. The tree blooms in late June or early July, the inflorescences are large and fluffy, drooping down. The fruit is a nut about 1 cm in size with a seed inside.

European

The main habitat is mixed and deciduous forests of Western Europe. These trees live for 100–150 years, look powerful: they reach 1.5–2 m in diameter, 40 m in height. The foliage is bright green in color, heart-shaped, its back part is rough. The crown is wide and dense, the bark of a tree is dark gray in adult and old specimens covered with deep cracks.

Silvery

This linden has pronounced differences from other species. The color of its foliage is dark green, the back side is greyish-silver, covered with thick fluff. Due to this, the tree has a second name - felt. The leaves themselves are medium in size - about 7–8 cm, in the middle of summer their edges are slightly wrapped inside, which is why the crown has a beautiful motley silver-green shade. In autumn, the foliage does not turn yellow, but it dries up, staying for a long time on the branches. The flowers are very small, yellowish.

Young shoots of felt linden are also pubescent, with time they become smooth. The bark of trees is gray, as they grow older, the trunks darken and coarsen.

The species is distributed in the Balkans, in Western Europe, the Crimea, and the Caucasus.

Reproduction and care

Planting lindens is a great way to create a beautiful landscape, appropriate in the local area, squares and parks. These trees improve the microclimate, in the summer they fill the air with the pleasant aroma of flowers, and when planted outside the city, they allow you to collect and use a useful color.

It is possible to propagate trees with seeds, but it is very laborious and time consuming. Not all of them remain viable, and, given the long period of rest, germination can wait more than one year. It is much more rational to use cuttings or basal linden shoots as planting material. For rooting cuttings lateral lower shoots incline to the soil and fix, lightly sprinkle it. The roots will have to wait for 1-2 years, then the branches just need to be freed from the soil and separated from the tree. Do this at the end of March.

From the roots of linden new shoots make their way up quite often, it is only necessary to carefully detach them from the parent plant. You can also purchase ready-made seedlings.

For planting the preferred mixture of sod soil, humus and sand. The pits are dug out in proportion to the size of the roots of the seedlings, so that their upper part is flush with the surface. At the bottom of the stack drainage of broken bricks or small stones. The distance between the pits when planting several trees is at least 3 m.

Care for young lindens requires careful. In the first 2–3 years, weekly watering is necessary, feeding with nitrogenous fertilizers at least once a month. In winter, seedlings, it is important to insulate mulch from sawdust or pine needles. Mature trees can not be watered, but they need to be fertilized 1-2 times per season.

Pruning branches to form the crown begin no earlier than the third year of life.

The array is represented by equal density pale yellow or pinkish sapwood. The texture is weak, the natural pattern is a bit like birch. The gloss of the surface is soft, slightly dull.

The qualitative characteristics of wood of lindens are somewhat lower than those of pine or oak. The overall coefficient of drying is 0.58. During the pre-drying process, the wood is almost not warped and does not crack due to uniform moisture saturation. The density of dry timber is about 450 kg / m³. Strength and resistance to mechanical stress in linden is small, similar to aspen wood. It is prone to swelling, badly holds nails and staples, is prone to rotting and fungal damage.

The advantages of linden are plasticity and ease of processing: the material is perfectly bend, cut, sawn, impregnated with coloring agents and stains, glued and polished.

Lipa has long been used for the construction of barns, made hives, chests, chests, barrels for sauerkraut, wine-making vats, and made kitchenware: scoops, ladles, spoons, pots. Especially prized was bast: from a young bast weaved bast shoes, knitted matting.

Today linden is used in furniture and lathe production, they grind out of it toys, pencils, blanks for decoration. Clapboard linden sheathed saunas and baths, made from the boards of the shelf. Due to the low thermal conductivity of this wood reduces the likelihood of burns when touched in a hot room.

Characteristics of linden tree

A linden tree is a beautiful and in many respects useful tree, whose height reaches 40 meters in some cases, referring to deciduous trees. The leaves are alternate, shaped like a heart, jagged, asymmetrical at the edges, pointed apically.

The diameter of the crown can be up to 5 meters, the crown itself is dense, giving a magnificent shade, perfectly amenable to molding.

Flowers have a fragrant aroma and valuable healing properties. In July, when it blooms, a buzz is constantly heard near it - the bees collect honey. Lime honey is considered to be one of the most valuable types of honey. The fruits are small nuts with one seed inside.

The root system is very powerful, penetrating far into the depths. Trees are considered fairly resistant to pests and diseases, they adapt well to environmental conditions, many species are tolerant to shade.

The described qualities allow using it in plantings created for decorative purposes.

Where does linden growthe soil improves there: its leaves rot very quickly, thus returning a large number of valuable elements contained in them to the soil.

American linden (black) (Tilia americana)

It lives in the east of North America, has a bark of black color, for which it received the second name. Height can be up to 40 meters. The krone has the shape of a wide oval, the diameter of the crown reaches 22 meters. Shoots are bare, green or brown. The leaves have the shape of a wide oval, sometimes reaching 20 cm in width.

The peak of flowering falls on the middle of July, the flowers of 8-15 pieces form inflorescences, the fruits are round nuts without ribs, up to 1 cm in diameter.

The tree is unpretentious to the soil and light, calmly applies to frost, and to drought, and to the wind. Growing in no hurry, for the year adds a height of 60 cm.

American linden is a good solution for alleys and parks, as well as for single plantings.

Decorative linden shapes:

  • vineyard
  • large-leaved,
  • pyramid

Amur Lipa (Tilia amurensis)

The homeland of this species is the Far East. Loves mountain slopes and river valleys. Height of 25-30 meters, the diameter of the trunk reaches a meter. The bark has a reddish-brown color, an oval-shaped crown. Shoots pubescent.

The length of the heart-shaped oval leaves is 7 cm, in the spring they have a light green color and bright red stipules, in summer the green color darkens, in the autumn the leaves become light yellow.

It blooms closer to the beginning of August, depending on the temperature, flowering time may vary. Inflorescences have from 5 to 15 cream flowers. Fruits are elongated, smooth, slightly pubescent.

It is resistant to shade, frost, wind, loves wet soil. The exceptional qualities of Amur linden:

  • abundant honey plant,
  • value of tree species
  • decorative value.

The first quarter of a century is slow, then it accelerates. Otherwise, it (according to the description and biological characteristics) resembles a small-leaved linden. On average, lives 300 years.

This species is protected by the state and banned for industrial logging in the Amur region, Khabarovsk and Perm region.

Felt linden (silver) (Tilia tomentosa)

Places of growth of this species - Asia Minor, Ukraine, the Balkans, Western Europe. Bred it also in the Baltic States and the Crimean-Caucasus region. He likes to coexist with ash, oak, maple.

In height can grow up to 30 meters. Her crown of the correct form, pyramidal, later - oval. The barrel has a regular cylindrical shape. Кора темно-серого цвета, гладкая на ощупь, позже появляются трещины, побеги опушены, позже опушение пропадает.

Листья овальные, у вершины заострены, длина 7-8 см. Желтея осенью, долго не покидают дерево.

Десятидневное цветение происходит во второй половине июля. Кремового цвета ароматные цветки во множестве собраны в полузонтики. Короткозаостренные орешки достигают длины 1 см.

Любит свет, тень тоже переносит легко, как и засуху. Любит сухую, свежую почву, рост медленный. Срок жизниданного вида до 200 лет.

Дерево имеет декоративную ценность, особенно в период цветения, ею хорошо озеленять города, частные владения, аллеи.

Декоративных сортов войлочной липы два: "Варсавиенсис" и "Брабант".

Липа европейская (Tilia europaea)

Данный вид получил свое название по месту произрастания: она обитает на территории Западной Европы. Дорастает до 40-метровой высоты. Ее крона густая, шатровидная. The trunk in diameter can be up to five meters, the bark is gray, covered with cracks.

The leaves are oval, heart-shaped, the top of the leaf is dark green, the bottom is greyish white.

It blooms in June for two weeks. Ribbed nuts, fruits ripen in August.

Differs in winter hardiness. Life expectancy is 150 years, although long-livers are found almost ten times older than this period.

Decorative species of European linden: split and vine-growing.

Caucasian linden (Tilia caucasica)

A common species mainly in the Caucasian and Crimean forests, is found in Asia Minor. In some cases, the tree reaches 40 meters in height, the trunk has a diameter of 2 meters. Crohn round or egg-shaped. Young sprouts have a reddish color.

The leaves are large, up to 15 cm, the upper part of the leaf has a dark green color, the lower part is gray, in the corners of the veins there are bunches of hairs.

Flowering time may be at the end of June or mid-July. The flowers are yellowish, abundant, fragrant, drooping inflorescences.

A heat-loving drought-tolerant tree, preferring, however, moist fertile soil, Caucasian linden grows faster than small-leaved, and lives up to 300 years.

The tree has a decorative value, used for gardening alleys.

Ornamental species: dark green and begoniole.

The species is common in the deciduous forests of the Crimea, and is a natural hybrid of the Caucasian and small-leaved linden.

The height of the tree is up to 20 meters. The krone is oval, dense. Branches wilted.

The leaves are 12-centimeter, oval, dark green from the outside and dull from the inside, in the corners of the veins tufts of brown hair.

Flowering time - the beginning of June, the duration - two weeks. Flowers have 3-7 pieces in inflorescence.

A young tree grows slowly, as it grows, growth accelerates.

It is resistant to frost and drought, easily tolerates shade.

Large-leaved linden - (Tilia platyphyllos Scop.)

Distributed in the forests of Europe, Ukraine, Moldova, the Caucasus. The trunk height of up to 35 meters, reaches a diameter of 6 meters. The crown is spreading, has the shape of a wide pyramid. Young shoots are brownish-red, pubescent, young - naked.

Oval 14-centimeter leaves fleecy, dark green on the outside, light from the inside, in the corners of the veins hairs.

Flowering occurs in July, the flowers are yellow or cream, from 2 to 5 pieces in the inflorescence. The fruit in the form of a nutlet, round, ribbed.

The tree grows quickly, the soil loves fertile. Moderately resistant to frost, gas.

Decorative species of large-leaved linden: golden, vine-growing, pyramidal, dissected-leaved.

Manchu Linden (Tilia mandshurica)

It grows in the southern regions of the Far East. The tree grows up to 20 meters. It is often multilateral, the bark is black, in cracks.

The crown of his has the shape of a wide oval. It has extremely large, up to 30 cm, leaves pubescent from the underside.

It blooms in July, bloom lasts about three weeks. Flowers 1-1.5 cm in diameter, powerful inflorescences, 8-12 flowers, drooping.

Densely pubescent nuts with a diameter of 1 cm ripen in August.

Very decorative tree with high frost resistance.

Linden characteristic

The characteristic of a linden means the detailed description of a plant. The story of its structure and appearance.

Linden leaves are arranged alternately, shaped like a heart, serrate edges. During blooming, there are stipules near the leaves, which after a while fall down. Near the base of the leaves, nectaries may often be present.

Flowers are a very important characteristic of linden. They are collected in the inflorescence of an umbrella. The corolla and calyx are five-sided. It is a lot of stamens, they grow together, as a rule, in five bunches. There are species of lindens whose stamens do not have anthers. The ovary is pyatignezdnaya, whole, in each nest there are two ovules.

The fruit is a nutlet, which is formed as a result of the undergrowth of a single-seed or two-seed ovule. The embryo has lobed, leaf-shaped or incised cotyledons.

Characteristic linden implies a story about its distribution. Lipa is found on the territory of Ukraine, Russia and their neighboring states.

Representatives of this genus grow in the subtropical and temperate zones of the northern hemisphere. The greatest variety of lindens can be observed in southeast Asia. For example, only in the Chinese Republic can be found fifteen endemics of this genus. In the temperate zone of North America, Asia and Europe, the plant is much less common. The plant loves heat and moisture, so it is abundantly distributed in Transcaucasia, Primorye and other localities with a similar climate.

Lindens are used for decorative purposes for landscaping streets of villages and cities. The linden is not fastidious to soils, it can grow on both dry and wet lands, regardless of their salinity. Vegetatively propagated and seeds.

Linden wood

Linden wood, as well as birch, cedar, is very valuable. It is usually used for the construction of buildings is not great strength and a variety of handicrafts. Linden trunks in diameter can reach up to two meters, so we can say that using linden wood is very profitable.

In our country, linden, in most cases, bast and bast, which are used for matting, mats, and the like. This was the reason that the linden began to be severely destroyed, the number of plants decreased significantly. Although it is not difficult to restore fake plantations, it doesn’t take much time, but it is not as fast as cutting a tree.

Linden wood is also very often used for the production of musical instruments, among which are electric guitars.

Linden is a valuable material for carving, as cutting it is very easy. Its wood has a pure white color. This was the reason that in tsarist times, fraudsters made fake royal seals from this plant.

Wood as a material is very soft, easily amenable to any kind of processing, does not warp. Furniture, plywood, barrels, shoe pads, dugout dishes, wooden wells are made from it.

In addition to wood, also used linden blossoms, which are simply not interchangeable in the manufacture of certain varieties of brandy and liquor.

Types of linden differ in some features of the structure, as well as wood. In total, there are about thirty.

The most common types of linden are heart-shaped, or as it is also called winter small-leaved, planar linden and linden felt.

The heart-shaped linden has bare leaves that are gray on the wrong side, and in the corners of the nerves are red hairs in bunches. The inflorescences of the plant are directed to the top, they contain from five to fifteen flowers. Fruits thin-walled with unclearly pronounced ribs.

The height of a plant averages up to thirty meters, but after reaching a linden of one hundred and twenty years, its height can be even greater. Linden trees have been found, their age is up to eight hundred, and even up to a thousand years.

The linden is flat-leaved, or summer, or, as it can still be called large-leaved, it is very early in color, its flow starts earlier than in other types of lindens. The leaves are very large in size and fluffy.

The fruit is a nutlet, the shell of which is very hard, has five edges. The inflorescences of this species of linden are somewhat drooping. In our country, it is spread badly. This type of linden bred for decorative purposes for planting in parks and squares.

Lime felt is widespread in the Caucasus and in the eastern part of Europe.

All species of linden are the most important honey plants. Honey from linden bees are made from flowers of a greenish-yellow color. Such products are of the highest quality. In addition, it is known worldwide for its medicinal properties.

Thus, we see that linden is not only valuable wood. It is an excellent decoration element of many streets and a magical healer of many diseases. Linden teas help to get rid of various diseases, among which. Of course, you can call a cold. Linden honey, the most useful among all products of this type. It is used to treat diseases of the throat, flu, and many other diseases.

Tatyana Pavlenko, member of the editorial board of the Sobkor of the independent Internet publication ATMWood. Wood-Industrial Gazette

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Small-leaved linden (heart-shaped) (Tilia cordata Mill)

It grows in the Crimean-Caucasus region, in the European part of Russia, as well as in Siberia, and Western Europe. Another name - Linden heart - received for the shape of the leaves.

It reaches 30 meters in height, the trunk is more than a meter in diameter, of a cylindrical shape. The young bark is gray, smooth, the old darkens, becomes rough.

The diameter of the crown 10-15 meters.

The leaves are small (3-6 cm), heart-shaped, the upper part is green, shiny, lower - gray.

It blooms about two weeks in late June or early July. The flowers are small, yellow-white, in each inflorescence from 5 to 7 pieces. Fruits, round smooth nuts, ripen by August.

Extremely cold and drought-resistant tree, likes fertile light soil, however, it improves it.

It grows slowly at first, 30 cm per year. Used for planting along the alleys, in parks, good for single plantings and as a hedge.

Life expectancy is more than 500 years.

The small-leaved linden and large-leaved linden have much in common in their biological characteristics, however there are some differences:

  • the leaves have a small leaf bloom two weeks earlier,
  • small leaf blooms two weeks later
  • the flowers of the large-leaved are larger, but their inflorescence is smaller,
  • small-leaved less demanding on soil fertility and quality,
  • krupnolistnaya better tolerates drought,
  • krupnolistnaya more suitable for urban environments.

Linden (Tilia x vulgaris Hayne)

This species is a natural hybrid of small-leaved and large-leaved limes. According to its characteristics, it resembles the first one, but has some differences:

  • blooms two weeks earlier than the small-leaved linden,
  • grows faster
  • more resistant to frost
  • better city conditions
  • leaves are larger, the crown is wider.

Siberian linden (Tilia sibirica)

It grows on the territory of Western Siberia, likes solitude, but sometimes forms “lime islands” in forests, the description of which mentions the presence of fir and aspen. Growth reaches 30-meter, at a trunk diameter 2 - 5 meters. The young bark is brown, with scales, the old one is dark, with cracks.

The leaves are small, up to 5 cm long, rounded, the top is green, the bottom is light, with hairs.

Flowering takes two weeks at the end of July. The flowers are white with yellowness, constitute a spherical ovary. Fruit - pear-shaped nut, having from 1 to 3 seeds, ripens in September.

He likes wet sod-podzolic soil with lime and light, tolerates shadow. Completely incompatible with wetlands. City conditions accepts favorably.

It grows slowly, refers to the long-lived: can live a thousand years.

Japanese linden (Tilia japonica)

It grows on the territory of East Asia, in deciduous subtropical forests. The height of the tree is up to 20 meters, the young bark is smooth, brown, old in the grooves, dark. The krone is highly located, has the oval form, compact.

The leaves are small, 5-7 cm, oval, often symmetrical, green outside, gray-gray inside with veins in the corners of the veins.

Flowering occurs in July or August for two weeks. The flowers are small (1 cm), collected in large numbers in drooping inflorescences.

Fruits - round smooth pubescent nuts - ripen by September.

Japanese linden grows slowly. It has frost resistance, it is exclusively a honey plant. Tea containing leaves of Japanese linden is very valuable.

It is impossible to put everything within the framework of one article that you should tell about linden - a wonderful and amazing tree, literally all parts of which benefit people. There are more than 40 varieties of it. The cultural linden, the species of which are described in this article, is selected and used for various purposes in urban plantings and private farms.

Tree features

Any variety of lime can be used by man almost completely. Lipa gives honey, bark. So, from bast fibers you can make shoes, ropes, fishing nets. Even leaves, juice and lime charcoal are used. And you can make dishes from wood, interior items, use it as a building material.

Linden wood is white, but with a pink tint. The characteristics of this material are as follows:

  • Easy to cut.
  • Well pricked.
  • It has normal softness.
  • It has sufficient elasticity.
  • Great makeup.
  • Firmly holds nails, even large sizes.
  • It has high durability.

Linden wood is resistant to changes in volume, the material does not form cracks and does not warp. The average bulk density of a linden tree with a moisture content of 15% is 0.51 grams per cubic centimeter. According to this indicator, the average density coefficient of wood is calculated. In linden it is 0, 53 g / cm3. It belongs to those wood species that have low density.

So in the photo looks like a linden tree

The thickness of any wood poorly conducts heat from the surface to the surface. In dry wood, the entire intercellular space is filled with air, and it is the worst conductor of heat. Considering that linden is a priori damp wood, its thermal conductivity is slightly lower and is at the level of 150 W / (m · K).

Another feature of linden: it does not take heat and does not burn at the same time (we are talking about baths, where the temperature is high). The modulus of elasticity of linden wood is inferior to aspen. The strength of linden in compression at a moisture content of 12% and static bending does not exceed 760 • 105 Pa. Face hardness is 248 • 105 Pa.

The natural moisture content of wood in a growing or just sawed form is measured without additional drying. There are no clear standards of humidity, it varies from 30 to 80% depending on the conditions for growth and the time of year. Wet wood reaches a moisture content of 100%. Just cut linden also has a high moisture content from 50 to 100%.

The linden sketch

Specific gravity is determined by summarizing the results of measurements that were carried out in different climatic zones. But even such data is not static. In linden, they range from 490 to 530 kg / m3 in normal humidity, but at 100% this figure may even exceed 800 kg / m3.

Volume weight is directly proportional to moisture. From drying after the critical saturation of the fibers, which begins when the humidity is close to 30%, the bulk density decreases more slowly than before. Many of these indicators depend on where the tree grew and what breed it is.

Volumes of wood weight

Image of linden

In the middle of summer, our forests are filled with honey aroma, and the air is hummed by bees. It bloomed Lipa - mother, nurse and keeper of the Russian land.

Lipa - one of the most revered trees of the Slavs. The names of settlements, forests, mountains and even female names were often produced from linden, which gave its name to the month of July (“Lipen” - this is how it is called now in Ukraine).

Linden - a symbol of femininity, softness and tenderness. It symbolizes the feminine principle, and not only among the Slavic peoples.

Slavs revered linden not only as a sacred tree, but also as a mother tree. Linden and feed and obu and cure. Spoon, cup, ladle, tray and other household items, cut from linden. For many centuries, our ancestors walked in lime bastards. And Lipa is a good honey plant.

There are many varieties of linden. The most common linden in our area is the heart-shaped linden.

Types of linden: description and photo

On a hot, hot day, it is pleasant to relax in the shade of an old sprawling linden, a useful and beautiful tree with a wealth of valuable properties and qualities. Do we often wonder what a tree like linden is?

It grows everywhere, and is familiar to the eye of both the city dweller and the inhabitant of the countryside — a common, unremarkable tree, part of the landscape. Few people now know that in the ancient European tradition it symbolizes the feminine: dishes, combs, shoes and many other household items were made of its wood.

Lipa is. What is linden?

Linden (Latin Tília) is a genus of woody plants. It unites about forty species of trees and large shrubs, as well as over a hundred hybrid species. Since the time of Carl Linnaeus, more than 350 species have been described, many of which were later synonymous with the existing taxa.

According to the classical classification system of Kronkvist, the genus is in the Lipovye family (Tiliaceae), but according to the results of modern genetic studies, this family was included in the Malvov family in the APG II classification system.

The leaves are alternate, oblique-heart-shaped, heart-shaped, oblique-oval with a more or less pronounced serrate edge. When blooming leaves, there are stipules that quickly fall off. Extrafloral nectaries are often present at the base of the leaf.

Two flowers — many are gathered in cymotic umbellate inflorescences, which depart from a special bract — not unlike ordinary leaves, growing to half its plate. Calyx and corolla pentamerous. Stamens in large numbers, at the base grow together into more or less noticeable five beams. At the same time, in some species of limes, part of the stamens do not have anthers, turning into staminodes. Завязь цельная, пятигнёздая, в каждом гнезде по две семяпочки.Формула цветка:

Плод ореховидный, вследствие недорастания семяпочек односемянной или двухсемянной. Зародыш в семенах с листовидными, лопастными или надрезанными семядолями.

Spread

Представители рода распространены в умеренной и субтропической зонах северного полушария. Особенно большое разнообразие видов лип приурочено к Юго-Восточной Азии. Например, только в Китае встречается 15 эндемичных видов. В умеренной зоне Европы, Азии и Северной Америки липа менее представлена. Растёт лучше всего в тёплых и достаточно влажных районах, как, например, западное Закавказье, юг Дальнего Востока — Приморье, в Северной Азии как реликт третичного, доледникового возраста встречается в континентальных, удаленных от океанов районах — юг Западной Сибири и Красноярский край. Естественный ареал — вся умеренная зона до 60-66 градусов с.ш. (самые северные естественные местонахождения липы - в Норвегии - между 65 и 66 градусами с.ш.). It is widely used in gardening of cities and villages. Satisfied with very diverse soils, but prefers the rich. Easily propagated by seeds and vegetatively.

Classification

There are about 30 types of limes. In European Russia and in Western Siberia, the species Tilia cordata is common. In Siberia, besides this, Tilia sibirica and Tilia nasczokinii are found, in Europe - Tilia platyphyllos, Tilia tomentosa, in the Caucasus - Tilia dasystyla subsp. caucasica, in the Far East - Tilia amurensis, Tilia taquetii, Tilia mandshurica, Tilia maximowicziana. Tilia europaea L. described by Linnaeus is a hybrid of heart-shaped and flat-leaved limes (Tilia cordata x Tilia platyphyllos). There are many other hybrid species and even varieties of lime.

In their typical representatives both lindens are distinguished by the following features:

  • Tilia cordata - heart-shaped linden (winter small-leaved linden). The leaves are bare, from the inside of the sizy, bear tufts of red hair in the corners of the nerves, the inflorescences are directed upwards, contain from 5 to 11 flowers, the fruits are thin-walled, with obscure ribs. Happen up to 30 m high, age - 120 years, but can reach and much bigger old age. There are limes, which are up to 800 and even 1000 years old. Lipa in Russia reaches Central Finland, and from there the northern limit of its distribution drops to the northern tip of Lake Onego, passes through the Arkhangelsk region, then drops to almost Ustyug, and then to 60 ° north latitude, crossing the Ural ridge, the northern limit of the linden decreases very southward, rising again in Siberia.
  • Tilia platyphyllos Scop. - flat-leaved linden, or summer linden, or large-leaved linden - it blooms and has spring sap flow earlier than the previous one, its leaves are larger and fluffy, the inside is not gray. Inflorescences drooping fruits (nuts) with a hard shell and 5 sharp ribs. Its distribution in Russia is poorly known. In Russia, apparently, it only comes across wildly in the south-western outskirts, then goes beyond its borders to Poland, as well as in the Caucasus, reaches the same size as the winter. In parks and gardens, she divorces us with success.
  • Felt linden (Tilia tomentosa) grows in the Caucasus and south-western Russia, and in the rest of Europe - in its eastern part.
  • In some places in the Caucasus and in some places in the Crimea, Tilia rubra DC. Comes across, in American gardens (Tilia americana L.).

Among the known types of limes in Eurasia (including the introduced ones), you can indicate:

  • Tilia americana - American linden
  • Tilia amurensis - Amur Lipa
  • Tilia begoniifolia - Begonillian linden (synonymous with Tilia dasystyla subsp. Caucasica)
  • Tilia caroliniana - Lipa Caroline
  • Tilia chinensis - Chinese linden
  • Tilia chingiana - Short-leaved Lime
  • Tilia cordata - Heart-shaped linden, or small-leaved linden, or Winter linden.
  • Tilia dasystyla - sherstostolbika linden
  • Tilia henryana - Lipa Henry
  • Tilia heterophylla - Mixed Linden
  • Tilia hupehensis - Hubei linden
  • Tilia insularis - Island linden
  • Tilia intonsa - Naked linden
  • Tilia japonica - Japanese linden
  • Tilia mandshurica - Manchu Lipa
  • Tilia maximowicziana - Lipa Maksimovic
  • Tilia mexicana - Mexican linden (reduced to a species of Tilia americana var. Mexicana)
  • Tilia miqueliana - Lipa Mikel
  • Tilia mongolica - Mongolian linden
  • Tilia nasczokinii - Lipa Nashchokina
  • Tilia nobilis - noble linden
  • Tilia occidentalis - Western linden
  • Tilia oliveri - Lipa Oliviera
  • Tilia paucicostata - Low-limber linden
  • Tilia platyphyllos - flat-leaf linden, or large-leaf linden, or summer linden
  • Tilia rubra - Red linden (reduced to a variety of Tilia platyphyllos var. Rubra)
  • Tilia sibirica - Siberian linden
  • Tilia taquetii - Lipa Take
  • Tilia tomentosa - Fluffy linden, or felt linden, or silver linden, or Hungarian linden
  • Tilia tuan - Lipa Tuan

Hybrids and cultivars (cultivated varieties)

  • Tilia × europaea typus - European linden, or Common linden, or Heartwood (Tilia cordata x Tilia platyphyllos) (the same - Tilia × vulgaris)
  • Tilia × euchlora - Tilia dasystyla × Tilia cordata
  • Tilia × petiolaris - Pedicel linden (Tilia tomentosa × Tilia?)

Meaning and application

At the mention of linden, many of us have the image of a well-groomed linden alley with sprawling age-old trees. Indeed, this tree lives for a very long time: on average, up to 300–400 years, and some individuals live up to 1,200 years. Throughout its life, linden not only pleases the eye with its extraordinary beauty, but also serves as a source of medicinal raw materials used for a long time in traditional medicine.

The linden grows in forests, gardens, on city boulevards and in parks. Cultivated as an ornamental and landscaping plant. The most common species in the European part of the country is small-leaved linden. The linden is especially good in summer, during flowering, when the tree is covered from top to bottom with fragrant yellowish flowers emitting a delicate aroma, gathered in half-umbrellas, with a large bract like a dragonfly wing.

Among the forest trees, linden stands out for its dense crown. It is characterized by a powerful trunk, reaching a diameter of 2-3, and sometimes even 5 meters.

Linden blooms under natural conditions in the 20th year of life, and in plantations - only after 30 years. It blooms almost every year and is very abundant in June-July. Flowering lasts 10-15 days. At that time, when linden blossoms, a surprisingly delicate, delicate and sweetish aroma flows in the air, which is felt far beyond the lime gardens and parks.

Small-leaved linden - medicinal, melliferous, food and technical plant. In scientific medicine, only linden flowers, a lime blossom, are used as medicinal raw materials, and in folk medicine, almost all parts of the plant. On an industrial scale, the preparation of medicinal raw materials is carried out mainly during the cutting of lime forests, when the tree reaches 90 years of age. At this time, you can get the maximum amount of raw materials from the tree.

Use as a medicine

When harvesting flowers from wild-growing and cultivated trees, the inflorescences, along with the bracts, are cut with ordinary scissors or garden cutters. At the same time collect only benign inflorescences, removing flowers with brown and darkened bracts. You should also not collect inflorescences, rust or damaged leaf beetles.

The best time to harvest is the time when more than half of the flowers in the inflorescence have already dissolved, and the rest are in the budding stage. Collected raw materials are dried in the shade in the air, in ventilated areas or in dryers at a temperature not higher than 40-45 degrees. Store dried raw materials in paper bags or cloth bags in a dark, well-ventilated area.

On average, about 300 grams of dry raw material is obtained from 1 kg of fresh flowers. This amount is enough for 1-2 years for a small family. It does not make sense to harvest fake color for future use in huge quantities so that it lasts for a longer period, since the dried raw materials may lose their healing qualities. In general, with proper storage, the raw materials do not lose their properties for 3 years.

Linden flowers contain essential oil, bitter and tannins, flavonoids, coumarin, saponins, wax, sugar, glucose, carotene, vitamins, micro and macro elements. Drugs made from linden color increase urination, sweating, improve the secretion of gastric juice, increase the secretion of digestive glands and facilitate the flow of bile. They also act as anti-inflammatory and soothing.

Folk medicine has long used a fake color for colds, fevers, flu, and bronchitis. At home, lime blossom is most often used as a diaphoretic, diuretic and expectorant in the form of a hot drink brewed like tea. Linden blossom is also used as an infusion for rinsing the mouth and throat or for lotions.

This tea has a beneficial effect on the body for all colds, kidney and lung diseases. However, for a long time, lime tea can not be consumed as it stimulates the nervous system too much, which can adversely affect the functioning of the heart.

From the lime color can be prepared decoction or infusion. Hot broth is drunk at night with coughs, colds, headaches, throat diseases, lung inflammation of the lungs, stomach pains, rheumatism, fainting. A decoction of fresh flowers is used inside when cutting into the urethra (mixed with sage grass) and in the presence of sand in the urine. If 5 g of purified soda is added to a glass of ready-made decoction, it can be used for gargling.

Outwardly, the linden-colored infusion is used for rinsing with stomatitis, gingivitis, sore throat, laryngitis, and also in the form of lotions and poultices for inflammation of hemorrhoids, swelling, ulcers, rheumatism and gout, for diseases of the female genital organs and for wiping the face with oily skin.

Infusion of lime blossom is used to prepare baths in the treatment of nervous diseases.

A special role in scientific and folk medicine is played by lime coal, which is obtained from dried wood or dried lime branches. It has a remarkable ability to bind harmful substances in quantities exceeding its own volume by 90 times.

Modern scientific medicine uses lime coal to adsorb toxins in case of poisoning. Chopped lindened coal treats food poisoning, pulmonary tuberculosis, diarrhea, diseases of the stomach and intestines, and is also used as an external remedy for the treatment of open bleeding wounds.

From linden wood receive tar. Degtem treat eczema, lubricating the affected areas. When coughing, a cloth rag about the size of a palm is applied to the back between the shoulder blades, greased with tar, which is changed every 2–3 days.

Linden fruits are used as an external agent pounded in the form of a powder and soaked in vinegar in the treatment of bleeding from wounds, nose, mouth, etc. Sliced ​​linden buds or leaves are used as an emollient for boils. Linden leaves can be applied to the boil. Our ancestors used lime leaves externally for headaches in the form of a compress on the head, and flowers as softening medicinal poultices.

Lime bark is used as a means of enhancing bile formation. It is usually harvested in winter. The bark is dried, crushed and taken in powder form or brewed as tea. The boiled young lime bark, giving a lot of mucus, is used to treat burns, gout, hemorrhoids.

Crushed fresh lime buds and leaves are used topically as an anti-inflammatory, painkiller and emollient for burns, inflammation of the mammary glands and other inflammatory processes. Cambium (a layer between bast and wood) in powder form is used in the treatment of burns.

Linden wood is highly valued for various handicrafts and buildings (not requiring high strength). Huge linden trunks, reaching more than 2 m in diameter, follow the Caucasus to squeeze out vines.

In our country, the linden goes mainly on the bast, that is, on obtaining the bast, which gives, besides the popular prints, a bast that goes to the mats, matting, coolies, and also on the sandals. The huge use of this material (bast) has already resulted in the extermination of lime forests in many places where the linden was still relatively very recently very abundant. The fact is that for the extraction of bast one has to destroy a whole tree, and the restoration of linden forests, although it happens quickly, with the help of shoots from the trunk and seedlings, but not to the extent that they are cut down.

Linden wood is often used to make musical instruments, in particular, electric guitar decks.

Linden is widely used in wood carving because it is easy to cut and has pure white wood.

Linden wood is soft, does not warp, is easy to process and therefore is used for the manufacture of plywood, furniture, drawing boards, shoe pads, cask containers, dugout dishes. Currently, linden blossoms are used in liquor and brandy production, as a result of which alcoholic beverages acquire healing qualities.

Linden blossom

Linden blossom is harvested in June - July, during the flowering of linden. Collecting flowers should be carried out only in dry weather the day after the dew has dropped. On average, about 300 grams of dry raw material is obtained from 1 kg of fresh flowers. This amount is enough for 1-2 years for a small family. With proper storage, raw materials do not lose their properties for 3 years.

Drugs made from linden color increase urination, sweating, improve the secretion of gastric juice, increase the secretion of digestive glands and facilitate the flow of bile. They also act as anti-inflammatory and soothing. Folk medicine has long used a fake color for colds, fevers, flu and bronchitis.

Lipa - the most important honey plant. In a number of localities of Central Russia and in the Far East of Russia, the bees give the main and first-class bribes, but in others it allocates nectar weakly and plays almost no role in the honey collection.

Lime honey bees make green-yellow linden flowers from nectar, which people for their high honey-bearing qualities were rightly called the queen of honey plants: from one medium-sized linden tree that blossoms in favorable conditions, in optimal weather, the bees produce 16 (according to other data, up to 30 and more) kg of high-grade honey, and from 1 ha of flowering limes - 1000 kg of honey and more. Each linden flower is capable of giving 25 ml of nectar.

Linden honey is considered one of the best varieties. Freshly pumped honey from unsealed honeycombs tastes spicy, and from sealed ones (ripened in a hive) is very fragrant, transparent, slightly yellow or greenish in color. Contains 39.27% ​​levulose and 36.05% glucose. Bees visit linden flowers more often in the morning and before evening, that is, when nectar is abundantly released.

Ufa (Bashkir) honey, the so-called liptsev, is colorless, during crystallization it becomes white, with a golden shade of coarse-grained mass. Amur (Far Eastern) honey is turbid-yellowish in color. All samples of linden honey have an excellent, somewhat sharp specific aroma and a pleasant taste, despite the fact that at the first moment they give a feeling of weak bitterness.

In folk medicine, lime honey is recommended for colds, mainly as a diaphoretic.

Numismatics

  • The image of a linden leaf was minted on a Czech coin in denominations of 20 hellers (it was in circulation from May 12, 1993 to October 31, 2003).
The project of a gold coin in denomination of 20 euros, dedicated to linden
  • On January 27, 2010, the German Federal Government approved the release of the German Forest gold coin series (German Deutscher Wald). As part of this series, the issue of a 20 euro Lipa coin (Linde) is scheduled for 2015.

The names of the summer tree are derived from the names of the summer months in several languages ​​of the peoples of Europe:

Did you know that.

linden is. What is linden?

lipase - lipase ... Russian word stress

LIPA - female Tilia tree, one of the softest ornamental trees, lubnyak. bandanter | Top door and window jamb Novg. psk. Stone Linden, Phillyrea media. It was sticky, and became a little sneaker, as stripped. Pine feeds, linden shoes, about Smolensk, ... ... Dal dictionary

LIPA - (Tilia), a genus of plants of this. Malvaceae of the lime trees. Deciduous trees vyc. 15 26 (up to 40) m. Leaves are alternate, double-rowed, b. including gear. The flowers are whitish or yellowish, tandric, fragrant, pollinated by bees, flower flies, etc. ... ... Biological encyclopedic dictionary

LIPA - 1. LIPA1, linden, female. Deciduous tree of temperate countries with hearty serrate leaves. Lipa, due to the softness of its wood, is not suitable for construction. Linden make different household things: dishes, spoons, etc. Linden in bloom. "From curly lindens ... ... Ushakov Explanatory Dictionary

LIPA - 1. LIPA1, linden, female. Deciduous tree of temperate countries with hearty serrate leaves. Lipa, due to the softness of its wood, is not suitable for construction. Linden make different household things: dishes, spoons, etc. Linden in bloom. "From curly lindens ... ... Ushakov Explanatory Dictionary

lime - fake, Potemkin village, falsification, bullshit, crap, deceit, forgery, fraud, nonsense, trash, fiction, limetta, sticky, show-off, fraud, imitation, Olympiad, liponka, fake Dictionary of Russian synonyms. linden 1. see deception. ... ... Dictionary of synonyms

Small-leaved linden: 1 flowering branch, 2 stems. LIPA, a genus of deciduous trees (family of lime trees). About 50 species in the Northern Hemisphere, in Russia, 7 species. Height up to 25 (rarely 40) m, usually lives 150 years, some lindens up to 1200 1300 years. ... ... Illustrated encyclopedic dictionary

LIPA - LIPA, a genus of deciduous trees (the family of lime trees). About 50 species in the Northern Hemisphere, in Russia, 7 species. Height up to 25 (rarely 40) m, usually lives 150 years, some lindens up to 1200 1300 years. Suitable breed. Small-leaved linden ubiquitous ... ... Modern encyclopedia

linden - 1. LIPA, s, g. Deciduous tree of this. Linden with heart-shaped toothed leaves and yellow honey fragrant flowers, the wood of such a tree. Sit under the linden. Fragrant linden branch. Plant a linden at the house. Cut linden spoon. ◁ Linden ... Encyclopedic Dictionary

LIPA is a genus of trees of the linden family. OK. 50 species in the North. hemisphere. Suitable breed. Used in landscaping. Wood is used to manufacture furniture, musical instruments, turning and carving, barrels, bast on a bast, spinning bast and ... ... the Great Encyclopedic Dictionary

Linden (wood) is. What is linden (wood)?

Липа — древесина различных видов деревьев рода Липа (лат. Tilia). В Европе это Липа европейская и Липа сердцевидная. Древесина липы была излюбленным материалом для скульптур и резьбы по дереву во времена поздней готики. И в наши дни главной областью применения этой древесины остаётся скульптура, различные виды резьбы и изготовление токарных изделий, так как она легко обрабатывается в любых направлениях.

Согласно стандарту DIN 4076 для обозначения древесины липы используется сокращение «LI».

Origin

Древесиной липы обычно называется древесина видов Липы европейской (Tilia cordata), Липы крупнолистной (Tilia platyphyllos) и Липы сердцевидной (Tilia × europaea), гибрид двух первых. Естественный ареал Липы европейской простирается от Северной Европы через Центральную до Восточной Европы. Восточная граница ареала пролегает по Уралу и Чёрному морю. The area of ​​Lipa large-leaved extends in the south of Europe with the eastern border in the Caucasus and the northern in the German Middle Mountains. Both species are cultivated throughout Europe.

Appearance

Lindens are spell-wood species and have a light core, not different in color from sapwood. The wood is light, whitish to yellowish and often has a reddish or brownish tint, has a matte sheen. Occasionally there are specimens with greenish stripes or spots. Very fine fibers with scattered pores are very evenly distributed. Fibers, as well as tree rays on the cross-section, are not clear. On the radial section, the tree rays form clearly visible mirrors up to 2 mm long. Annual rings are poorly distinguishable. The wood of different types of lime is not distinguishable either with the naked eye or under a microscope.

There are no significant differences between the wood of both domestic linden species. However, it is believed that the European linden has a somewhat heavier, dense and solid wood. Linden wood is soft, has an average density of about 530 kg / m³ at a humidity of 12-15% and belongs to the domestic hardwood of average weight. Evenly dense, viscous, slightly elastic and fragile, it becomes strongly jagged and cracked during drying, but is stable in the dried state. Under water or when exposed to precipitation, it is quickly damaged by fungi and therefore very short-lived.

Perfectly processed, easy to cut and planed, especially suitable for woodcarving and turning products. It bends, it is easy to prick, but it is not possible to obtain smooth surfaces. Connections with nails and screws hold well, but the strength of glued joints is not always satisfactory. Surfaces can be polished, painted and painted. Easy to varnish.

In the sun, this wood turns yellow. When wet contact with iron appears gray spots, iron strongly rust. Otherwise, this wood is chemically weakly active.

Literature

linden is. What is linden?

lipase - lipase ... Russian word stress

LIPA - female Tilia tree, one of the softest ornamental trees, lubnyak. bandanter | Top door and window jamb Novg. psk. Stone Linden, Phillyrea media. It was sticky, and became a little sneaker, as stripped. Pine feeds, linden shoes, about Smolensk, ... ... Dal dictionary

LIPA - (Tilia), a genus of plants of this. Malvaceae of the lime trees. Deciduous trees vyc. 15 26 (up to 40) m. Leaves are alternate, double-rowed, b. including gear. The flowers are whitish or yellowish, tandric, fragrant, pollinated by bees, flower flies, etc. ... ... Biological encyclopedic dictionary

LIPA - 1. LIPA1, linden, female. Deciduous tree of temperate countries with hearty serrate leaves. Lipa, due to the softness of its wood, is not suitable for construction. Linden make different household things: dishes, spoons, etc. Linden in bloom. "From curly lindens ... ... Ushakov Explanatory Dictionary

LIPA - 1. LIPA1, linden, female. Deciduous tree of temperate countries with hearty serrate leaves. Lipa, due to the softness of its wood, is not suitable for construction. Linden make different household things: dishes, spoons, etc. Linden in bloom. "From curly lindens ... ... Ushakov Explanatory Dictionary

lime - fake, Potemkin village, falsification, bullshit, crap, deceit, forgery, fraud, nonsense, trash, fiction, limetta, sticky, show-off, fraud, imitation, Olympiad, liponka, fake Dictionary of Russian synonyms. linden 1. see deception. ... ... Dictionary of synonyms

Small-leaved linden: 1 flowering branch, 2 stems. LIPA, a genus of deciduous trees (family of lime trees). About 50 species in the Northern Hemisphere, in Russia, 7 species. Height up to 25 (rarely 40) m, usually lives 150 years, some lindens up to 1200 1300 years. ... ... Illustrated encyclopedic dictionary

LIPA - LIPA, a genus of deciduous trees (the family of lime trees). About 50 species in the Northern Hemisphere, in Russia, 7 species. Height up to 25 (rarely 40) m, usually lives 150 years, some lindens up to 1200 1300 years. Suitable breed. Small-leaved linden ubiquitous ... ... Modern encyclopedia

linden - 1. LIPA, s, g. Deciduous tree of this. Linden with heart-shaped toothed leaves and yellow honey fragrant flowers, the wood of such a tree. Sit under the linden. Fragrant linden branch. Plant a linden at the house. Cut linden spoon. ◁ Linden ... Encyclopedic Dictionary

LIPA is a genus of trees of the linden family. OK. 50 species in the North. hemisphere. Suitable breed. Used in landscaping. Wood is used to manufacture furniture, musical instruments, turning and carving, barrels, bast on a bast, spinning bast and ... ... the Great Encyclopedic Dictionary

Linden (wood) is. What is linden (wood)?

Linden - the wood of various types of trees of the genus Lipa (Latin Tilia). In Europe, it is European linden and heart-shaped linden. Linden wood was a favorite material for sculptures and woodcarving during the late Gothic period. And today, the main area of ​​application of this wood is sculpture, various types of carving and the manufacture of turning products, as it is easily processed in any direction.

According to DIN 4076, the abbreviation “LI” is used to designate linden wood.

Origin

Linden wood is commonly called the wood of the European Linden (Tilia cordata), Large-leaved Tilia (Tilia platyphyllos) and Heart-shaped Tilia (Tilia × europaea) species, a hybrid of the first two. The natural range of Lipa European extends from Northern Europe through Central to Eastern Europe. The eastern boundary of the range runs through the Urals and the Black Sea. The area of ​​Lipa large-leaved extends in the south of Europe with the eastern border in the Caucasus and the northern in the German Middle Mountains. Both species are cultivated throughout Europe.

Appearance

Lindens are spell-wood species and have a light core, not different in color from sapwood. The wood is light, whitish to yellowish and often has a reddish or brownish tint, has a matte sheen. Occasionally there are specimens with greenish stripes or spots. Very fine fibers with scattered pores are very evenly distributed. Fibers, as well as tree rays on the cross-section, are not clear. On the radial section, the tree rays form clearly visible mirrors up to 2 mm long. Annual rings are poorly distinguishable. The wood of different types of lime is not distinguishable either with the naked eye or under a microscope.

There are no significant differences between the wood of both domestic linden species. However, it is believed that the European linden has a somewhat heavier, dense and solid wood. Linden wood is soft, has an average density of about 530 kg / m³ at a humidity of 12-15% and belongs to the domestic hardwood of average weight. Evenly dense, viscous, slightly elastic and fragile, it becomes strongly jagged and cracked during drying, but is stable in the dried state. Under water or when exposed to precipitation, it is quickly damaged by fungi and therefore very short-lived.

Perfectly processed, easy to cut and planed, especially suitable for woodcarving and turning products. It bends, it is easy to prick, but it is not possible to obtain smooth surfaces. Connections with nails and screws hold well, but the strength of glued joints is not always satisfactory. Surfaces can be polished, painted and painted. Easy to varnish.

In the sun, this wood turns yellow. When wet contact with iron appears gray spots, iron strongly rust. Otherwise, this wood is chemically weakly active.

Using

Linden wood is sold as round timber and lumber, but in small quantities. The main field of application is sculpture, wood carving and turning. Many famous works of German sculptors, primarily of the late Gothic period, are made of linden wood, among them the work of Tilman Riemenschneider or Veit Stos, as well as a few centuries later by Ludwig Schwantalier. Linden wood has long been considered a “sacred tree” (Latin lignum sacrum), since many statues of saints were carved from it. This brought on her dislike of the Protestant priests, so the Lutheran preacher Jerome Bock said of a linden tree: “carvings are made of this wood that are honored in churches instead of saints.” The Czestochowa Icon of the Mother of God is also written on a lime board. Today, for carving, more commonly available wood is used: white pine (Latin: Pinus strobus). In Germany, the annual consumption of linden woodcarving is estimated from 3,000 to 5,000 m³.

In addition, linden is used for interior furniture and plywood, it can be used to simulate walnut wood. Often lindens make the front panels of the clock, drawing boards, blanks for making hats and the like. It serves for the manufacture of models for casting, toys, kitchen appliances. They make barrels and containers for dry and odor-sensitive products, cheap pencils and matches. It is used in the manufacture of musical instruments: for harps, piano keys and reed pipes organs. It is also used as a material for the guitar deck as a cheaper substitute for alder, with similar acoustic properties [source not specified 293 days].

Lime is used to make charcoal for drawing and filtering; before, lime was used for making gunpowder and for cleaning teeth.

Literature

  • D. Grosser, W. Teetz Linde / / Einheimische Nutzhölzer (Loseblattsammlung) / Arbeitsgemeinschaft Holz e.V. - Bonn: Informationsdienst Holz, Holzabsatzfond - Absatzförderungfonds der deutschen Forst- und Holzwirtschaft, etatzförderungfonds der deutschen Forst-und Holzwirtschaft-etz.

Notes

Literature

linden is. What is linden?

lipase - lipase ... Russian word stress

LIPA - female Tilia tree, one of the softest ornamental trees, lubnyak. bandanter | Top door and window jamb Novg. psk. Stone Linden, Phillyrea media. It was sticky, and became a little sneaker, as stripped. Pine feeds, linden shoes, about Smolensk, ... ... Dal dictionary

LIPA - (Tilia), a genus of plants of this. Malvaceae of the lime trees. Deciduous trees vyc. 15 26 (up to 40) m. Leaves are alternate, double-rowed, b. including gear. The flowers are whitish or yellowish, tandric, fragrant, pollinated by bees, flower flies, etc. ... ... Biological encyclopedic dictionary

LIPA - 1. LIPA1, linden, female. Deciduous tree of temperate countries with hearty serrate leaves. Lipa, due to the softness of its wood, is not suitable for construction. Linden make different household things: dishes, spoons, etc. Linden in bloom. "From curly lindens ... ... Ushakov Explanatory Dictionary

LIPA - 1. LIPA1, linden, female. Deciduous tree of temperate countries with hearty serrate leaves. Lipa, due to the softness of its wood, is not suitable for construction. Linden make different household things: dishes, spoons, etc. Linden in bloom. "From curly lindens ... ... Ushakov Explanatory Dictionary

lime - fake, Potemkin village, falsification, bullshit, crap, deceit, forgery, fraud, nonsense, trash, fiction, limetta, sticky, show-off, fraud, imitation, Olympiad, liponka, fake Dictionary of Russian synonyms. linden 1. see deception. ... ... Dictionary of synonyms

Small-leaved linden: 1 flowering branch, 2 stems. LIPA, a genus of deciduous trees (family of lime trees). About 50 species in the Northern Hemisphere, in Russia, 7 species. Height up to 25 (rarely 40) m, usually lives 150 years, some lindens up to 1200 1300 years. ... ... Illustrated encyclopedic dictionary

LIPA - LIPA, a genus of deciduous trees (the family of lime trees). About 50 species in the Northern Hemisphere, in Russia, 7 species. Height up to 25 (rarely 40) m, usually lives 150 years, some lindens up to 1200 1300 years. Suitable breed. Small-leaved linden ubiquitous ... ... Modern encyclopedia

linden - 1. LIPA, s, g. Deciduous tree of this. Linden with heart-shaped toothed leaves and yellow honey fragrant flowers, the wood of such a tree. Sit under the linden. Fragrant linden branch. Plant a linden at the house. Cut linden spoon. ◁ Linden ... Encyclopedic Dictionary

LIPA is a genus of trees of the linden family. OK. 50 species in the North. hemisphere. Suitable breed. Used in landscaping. Wood is used to manufacture furniture, musical instruments, turning and carving, barrels, bast on a bast, spinning bast and ... ... the Great Encyclopedic Dictionary

Linden (wood) is. What is linden (wood)?

Linden - the wood of various types of trees of the genus Lipa (Latin Tilia). In Europe, it is European linden and heart-shaped linden. Linden wood was a favorite material for sculptures and woodcarving during the late Gothic period. And today, the main area of ​​application of this wood is sculpture, various types of carving and the manufacture of turning products, as it is easily processed in any direction.

According to DIN 4076, the abbreviation “LI” is used to designate linden wood.

Origin

Linden wood is commonly called the wood of the European Linden (Tilia cordata), Large-leaved Tilia (Tilia platyphyllos) and Heart-shaped Tilia (Tilia × europaea) species, a hybrid of the first two. The natural range of Lipa European extends from Northern Europe through Central to Eastern Europe. The eastern boundary of the range runs through the Urals and the Black Sea. The area of ​​Lipa large-leaved extends in the south of Europe with the eastern border in the Caucasus and the northern in the German Middle Mountains. Both species are cultivated throughout Europe.

Appearance

Lindens are spell-wood species and have a light core, not different in color from sapwood. The wood is light, whitish to yellowish and often has a reddish or brownish tint, has a matte sheen. Occasionally there are specimens with greenish stripes or spots. Very fine fibers with scattered pores are very evenly distributed. Fibers, as well as tree rays on the cross-section, are not clear. On the radial section, the tree rays form clearly visible mirrors up to 2 mm long. Annual rings are poorly distinguishable. The wood of different types of lime is not distinguishable either with the naked eye or under a microscope.

There are no significant differences between the wood of both domestic linden species. However, it is believed that the European linden has a somewhat heavier, dense and solid wood. Linden wood is soft, has an average density of about 530 kg / m³ at a humidity of 12-15% and belongs to the domestic hardwood of average weight. Evenly dense, viscous, slightly elastic and fragile, it becomes strongly jagged and cracked during drying, but is stable in the dried state. Under water or when exposed to precipitation, it is quickly damaged by fungi and therefore very short-lived.

Perfectly processed, easy to cut and planed, especially suitable for woodcarving and turning products. It bends, it is easy to prick, but it is not possible to obtain smooth surfaces. Connections with nails and screws hold well, but the strength of glued joints is not always satisfactory. Surfaces can be polished, painted and painted. Easy to varnish.

In the sun, this wood turns yellow. When wet contact with iron appears gray spots, iron strongly rust. Otherwise, this wood is chemically weakly active.

Using

Linden wood is sold as round timber and lumber, but in small quantities. The main field of application is sculpture, wood carving and turning. Many famous works of German sculptors, primarily of the late Gothic period, are made of linden wood, among them the work of Tilman Riemenschneider or Veit Stos, as well as a few centuries later by Ludwig Schwantalier. Linden wood has long been considered a “sacred tree” (Latin lignum sacrum), since many statues of saints were carved from it. This brought on her dislike of the Protestant priests, so the Lutheran preacher Jerome Bock said of a linden tree: “carvings are made of this wood that are honored in churches instead of saints.” The Czestochowa Icon of the Mother of God is also written on a lime board. Today, for carving, more commonly available wood is used: white pine (Latin: Pinus strobus). In Germany, the annual consumption of linden woodcarving is estimated from 3,000 to 5,000 m³.

In addition, linden is used for interior furniture and plywood, it can be used to simulate walnut wood. Often lindens make the front panels of the clock, drawing boards, blanks for making hats and the like. It serves for the manufacture of models for casting, toys, kitchen appliances. They make barrels and containers for dry and odor-sensitive products, cheap pencils and matches. It is used in the manufacture of musical instruments: for harps, piano keys and reed pipes organs. It is also used as a material for the guitar deck as a cheaper substitute for alder, with similar acoustic properties [source not specified 293 days].

Lime is used to make charcoal for drawing and filtering; before, lime was used for making gunpowder and for cleaning teeth.

Literature

  • D. Grosser, W. Teetz Linde / / Einheimische Nutzhölzer (Loseblattsammlung) / Arbeitsgemeinschaft Holz e.V. - Bonn: Informationsdienst Holz, Holzabsatzfond - Absatzförderungfonds der deutschen Forst- und Holzwirtschaft, etatzförderungfonds der deutschen Forst-und Holzwirtschaft-etz.

Notes

  1. 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 D. Grosser, W. Teetz Linde // Einheimische Nutzhölzer (Loseblattsammlung) / Arbeitsgemeinschaft Holz eV - Bonn: Informationsdienst Holz, Holzabsatzfond - Absatzförderungfonds der deutschen Forst-of-the- 2114
  2. ↑ 1 2 Doris Laudert Mythos Baum: Geschichte, Brauchtum, 40 Baumporträts von Ahorn bis Zitrone. - 7. - München: BLV, 2009. - 169 p. - ISBN 978-3-8354-0557-8

What is linden, what does linden mean.

LIPA Tili tree, one of the softest ornamental trees, lubnyak. bandanter || Top door and window jamb Novg. psk. Stone linden, Philllyrea media. Была липка, а стала лутошка, как ободрали. Сосна кормит, липа обувает, о смолянах, мезговниках. Липа об. докучливый и неотвязчивый человек. Липка арх. бабочка, мотылек. || Твер. пск. дуплянка, обитая сверху кожей, сиденье сапожников. Липовый, к липе относящ., с ее добытый, из дерева ее сделанный. Бара липовые, а мужики дубовые. Липом два котла. Да и те сгорали дотла, приданое. Сам дубовый, пояс вязовый, нос липовый? бочка, обручи, гвоздь. Липина ж. липа, одно дерево. || олон. дверной, оконный косяк. || Липина, липовая лучина кур. || Трава вереск влад. Липняк, липнячек м. липовый лес, роша. Липяк м. тамб. возвышенность, покрытая каким бы то ни было лесом. Липня ж. пск. липовая колода, на улей. Липовка ж. липовая дуплянка, стоячок, лагунок, чиляк.|| Breed of apples, bel. Lipica g. Vlad rasten Calluna vulgaris, heather, yawk, passerine buckwheat, yornik, erroneous. buguk Lipovitsa g. lime juice, filtered in spring, drinking. Lipets m. White, fragrant honey, collected by bees with a lime blossom, || boiled, bottle honey from this honey. || Star The name of the month of July, when linden blossoms. Lipovane m. Pl. our foreign dissenters, interpretations of bespovschina, in Austria, on the Danube, etc.

Dahl Dictionary

- LIPA: deciduous tree with heart-shaped toothed leaves and fragrant honey flowers - LIPA: fake, fake

Dictionary Ozhegova

Linden - linden, well. (colloquially vulgar., from the thieves of the argo). What n fake, fake. This is a linden, not a certificate., Linden - linden, well. (colloquially vulgar., from the thieves of the argo). What n fake, fake. This is a linden, not a certificate.,

Explanatory Dictionary Ushakov

1. g.1) Deciduous tree with a dense crown and fragrant honey flowers.2) A flower of such a tree.3) Wood of such a tree.2. g. talk-niz.1) That fake, fake (usually about documents) .2) False, incorrect information.

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