One of the most important activities on the farm is feeding the bulls for meat. This business brings farmers a large profit, because with the proper breeding of cattle, the weight of one individual reaches 400 kg and more. Our article will tell you how to feed the animals so that they can gain weight. Young animals should be provided with a high-quality diet, regular check-ups at the vet, a clean stall with fresh bedding, and daily paddock walking.
What you need to know first
It is necessary to fatten the bull from 2-3 months, but sometimes farmers begin the process from one month of age. It is necessary to take into account the characteristics of the organism of animals. About a month, they only form the digestive system, so an insufficient amount of enzymes are produced, which are necessary for successful digestion of food. And this has a negative effect on weight gain.
If you feed a bull with a small amount of food of predominantly plant species, it will not be able to digest. As a result, toxins will accumulate in the intestines and poisoning may begin. In addition, pathogenic bacteria will begin to multiply and interfere with the metabolic process, which will cause intestinal upset. In this case, the bulls will slowly gain body weight, they may begin problems with joints.
To this did not happen, you need to make a table, indicating in it a plan for fattening calves for meat and an approximate diet. Cattle should be fed frequently, but in small portions. In free access must always be high-quality hay.
Diet up to six months
In order for the bull to have the greatest possible weight, you should find out in advance at the vet how to feed him correctly. Only with the observance of the technology of fattening it is possible to achieve high-quality meat, which will contain many nutrients. Young animals (calves) are not fastidious in eating, so they eat up everything they are offered. In the summer, animals need to be fed with fresh grass. In winter, the diet should include:
From two months on one calf (bull) per day you need about 1.5 kg of feed, 3 kg of root crops and 3 kg of dry grass. Feed the bull should be a certain pattern: first, feed, then roots, and then dry grass. Grain fattening involves the use of crushed grain. But in this case, the calf should get enough water. Vegetables must be clean and finely chopped. It is necessary to give cattle only quality products and make sure that they do not have mold and rot.
Food after six months
Inexperienced farmers sometimes face the question of how to feed a bull after 6 months so that it quickly gains weight. From this age, the diet should include food processing waste: beet pulp, brewer's grain, silage, potato pulp. Green feed should be given gradually, otherwise stomach problems will begin. At first, about 13–14 kg of feed is needed per individual, and this week it is necessary to bring the rate up to 70 kg. For fattening, cereals and beans are effective, and the most valuable part is their leaves, which include many nutrients, vitamins, fiber. From 7 to 9 months you need to feed the bulls dry or fresh grass.
Also as a food for feeding bulls effective roughage, bagasse, bard. You can give about 4 kg of fodder beet, 20 g of chalk, 40 g of salt per day. After a year, the volume of succulent feed doubles, and the amount of feed should be no more than 1 kg
3 months before slaughter, it is necessary to gradually increase the amount of food, while feeding the animals with high-quality hay. In this case, the fattened calf will weigh about 400 kg and it will be possible to achieve tender and lean beef. Feeding should be carried out strictly on schedule, so as not to knock mode.
Compared to cows, bulls have a higher rate of weight gain. They eat a lot, but picky.
From birth to the month of the diet calf consists mainly of milk. Every day he needs at least 8 liters. After a week of drinking only milk can be gradually accustomed to dry food. If it is a spring calf, then besides hay they add green food in the form of succulent herbs.
The longer and more the calf feeds on milk or whey, the more effective the weight gain. Therefore, if there is enough milk in the farm and cheeses are produced, then a departure from their production - whey - should be allowed to feed the bulls. It can be diluted cleaning - carrot or potato.
Tip! To quench your thirst, give not water, but lukewarm whey. This will create a normal microflora in the animal's stomach.
If there is a shortage of milk in the farm, veterinarians recommend adding probiotics to the feed to promote proper digestion. Then the bull will not be threatened with diarrhea and indigestion.
The diet of grown up young consists of
- coarse and concentrated feed.
On the day of the bull eats more than 100 kg of feed. This portion is divided into two or three steps. Feed is always set at the same time. Half of the daily ration should consist of silage or
Bulls will gladly eat the gifts of your garden. Do not give up potatoes, zucchini, watermelons and pumpkins. Vegetables should be free from rot and mold, they should be washed and cut before serving.
Features fattening bulls
When growing bulls for meat, it is necessary to provide them with enhanced and high-quality nutrition, which contributes to the rapid weight gain. If bulls are intended only for meat, then grow them up to a maximum of 20 months of age.
In the last three months, the animal is transferred to intensive feeding, limiting its mobility. Fix it with chains or thick ropes attached to the stall. During this period, the bull becomes especially irritable and dangerous. If the chains are not enough, he can break free. Then get a Spanish bullfight with an unknown outcome. Hope this does not happen.
To increase the appetite of the bull you need to walk daily in the fresh air. After that, immediately feed.
In large animal-breeding complexes, specialists have developed such feeding schemes, which make it possible to obtain a daily six-gram increase in bull weight. Similar schemes need to be developed in households. They optimize the fattening process and allow you to avoid mistakes that lead to malnutrition or overfeeding the animal.
Scheme of fattening is necessary on the basis of the following provisions, summarized in the table.
Bull age, months
Mostly milk and back. From the second week of life, add a little hay and dried grass, as well as wheat flour. Such feeding is effective and gives a quick weight gain only in the initial period. If we continue it further, the growth will slow down, since it does not develop the stomach.
Difficult period. Use tricks. In particular, they are fed food rich in protein that helps build muscle. Such food includes cereals (they are given in crushed form), as well as vegetables (they need to be cut) and hay.
In the summer - pasture (meadow grass) or hay. In winter, they are fed with silage or hay. During this period, muscle mass is in an optimally balanced state. Meat bulls of this age has high dietary properties.
3 months before slaughter
Intensive, enhanced nutrition, contributing to weight gain.
If you follow this feeding technology, by the end of the year the bull can reach a weight of 4 centners. At the same time, his meat will be lean and tender.
Contact your veterinarian for help in calculating the daily rate of feed, which is also affected by the breed of calf. Consultation will help you to create the optimal menu. And also calculate how much feed will be needed for a year. After that, you need to conduct an audit of their blanks and make sure they are sufficient. If a little, you have to buy. Otherwise, the bull will starve, and you will not get the expected result.
One bull requires about 3 centners of hay per year, the same amount of feed, as well as a lot of silage, straw, haylage, dry corn, chaff, in general, everything that you have on the farm.
To reduce the cost of meat, some farmers feed the bulls with crushed cereal fodder. It is added to each meal, after steaming with boiling water and adding salt. Just wait until everything is cool. If probiotic is added to food, it should not be hot. Otherwise, the drug will become ineffective, since at high temperatures all that is useful in it dies.
If by the end of the first year of a bull’s life its weight increases by 8 times, you have carried out the feeding correctly. This is a check digit. It can be used to determine how you worked a year. A well-fed bull can weigh more than 3 quintals. He will have round sides and a thick neck. If there is a lot of nutritious food, and a bull is thin, it means that he has some kind of hidden disease. Feed him on does not make sense. It is better to hurry to pass it to the meat.
The time of the slaughter of the animal must be planned in advance. It affects the feeding pattern.
- Autumn slaughter implies enhanced spring and summer meals.
- If the animal stays for the winter, then it is gradually transferred to low-quality feed and, accordingly, cheap.
The final phase of fattening is feeding. It begins 2 months before slaughter on a quality pasture. On it, the bull is all light day, almost immobilized. To do this, it is tied - so he quickly gain weight.
Important! Do not disturb the feeding schedule. And also follow the gradual change of feed, as a sharp transition to succulent feed can lead to poisoning of the animal until death.
In addition to the main feed, table salt should be present in the animal’s diet. Its quantity is determined by the weight of the bull and can reach up to 100 g per day.
The effect of castration on fattening a bull
The main goal pursued by farmers, conducting this procedure at an early age - is to improve the nature of the animal and make it more docile. But these are, perhaps, all the positive aspects of this operation.
Such gobies develop more slowly; at the end of the fattening year, they weigh 20 kg less than their uncastrated counterparts. And then this difference is becoming more noticeable. They need more feed. Meat has a high fat content. It is not suitable for diet food.
Early conduct of this operation adversely affects the development of the animal's muscular corset, which leads to its severe obesity. Therefore, experienced farmers perform this procedure at the age of one bull.
As a result, we can say that the business of fattening bulls for meat, of course, can be profitable and greatly improve your financial situation. But they need to deal with from dawn to dusk, spending a lot of physical effort. Although, they say - “without effort you cannot catch a fish from a pond”.