Cucumbers grow even the most lazy gardeners. Juicy, crunchy, fragrant flesh of cucumbers makes the human soul tremble, and salads from fresh cucumbers are like a balm for the soul for people weary of the winter cold.
All grow cucumbers, but some of the beds are full of fruits, while others have crooked cucumbers. The first ones eat until they are full and canned cucumbers left and right, while the second ones wait several days to make a vitamin salad.
What is the reason for the low yields of cucumber beds? How to achieve stability and get a rich crop of cucumbers not from case to case, but constantly from year to year?
Especially for you, we selected the key elements of cucumber agrotechnics from the practice of successful gardeners and prepared five steps to remedy the situation.
Grow cucumbers in a sunny place
A sunny place is the first and most important step on the way to a big crop of cucumbers. The sun needs cucumbers as much as moisture.
The sun should illuminate a cucumber bed for at least 8 hours a day, which means the bed should be located in the south, in an open place, outside the shade zone from the crowns of trees and shrubs. No sun - no photosynthesis!
In addition to participating in photosynthesis, sunlight kills harmful bacteria and microorganisms. A large amount of sunlight eliminates the need for regular processing of cucumber plants from fusarium and rot.
The soil should be fertile, rich and drained.
Cucumbers love fertile, micronutrient-rich, well-drained soil, which means clay and sand are not suitable for a cucumber bed. Clay - holds water and contains little micro and macronutrients, and sand - passes water, not allowing any useful substances to linger.
There are many variants of soil mixtures for cucumbers, but all of them contain compost, sod land, humus and other components containing a large number of micro and macro elements, for example:
- Leafy ground - the land of the trees, except for oak,
- Wood ash
- Sphagnum moss,
- Husk from seeds.
From inorganic components in the mixture for cucumbers add:
- Washed river sand for looseness,
- Hydrated lime,
- Expanded clay.
Cucumber soil can be bought in the store, and you can mix it yourself, for example:
- Turf ground / peat / sand or perlite mixed in equal parts
- Leaf ground / humus / sand mixed in equal parts
- Soddy / humus / river sand mixed in a ratio of 3/3/1,
- Sod land / humus in equal shares, mixed with a glass of wood ash, into a bucket of mixture, etc.
Experienced gardeners recommend the following composition of the soil mixture for cucumbers:
- Sod (sheet) ground - 2 buckets,
- Ammonium nitrate - 8-10 grams
- Double superphosphate - 10 grams,
- Sulfuric potassium - 10 grams,
- Wood ash - 1 cup.
The soil mixture should be laid on raised, elevated, beds, at least 10 centimeters high from the surface of the earth. The raised bed promotes better ventilation of the soil mixture and prevents the development of root rot.
We grow cucumbers without using seedlings, sowing seeds right in the cucumber patch. If you also use a seedless method of growing cucumbers, then take care that insects or birds do not eat the seeds before germination and rooting in the soil. Birds also love pulling delicate cucumber sprouts, such as rooks.
Observe crop rotation and watch your surroundings.
The closest surrounding of cucumbers greatly affects the harvest, so carefully monitor the compatibility of the plants growing nearby, as well as their predecessors.
You should not grow cucumbers on the former potato garden, and radish and radish, on the contrary, increase the productivity of cucumber plants, scaring off pests.
Nasturtium and Alyssum are excellent assistants in the struggle for the harvest, it is desirable that they surround cucumber beds along the perimeter. Nasturtium, its smell, frightens off many pests, and Alyssum flowers complete what has begun nasturtium.
The most important detail! Be sure to enter a five-field or seven-field crop rotation on your plot and do not back down on the plan for crop rotation, planting cucumbers in the same place no sooner than in three years.
During this time, all cucumber pests and diseases will have time to decrease to a safe level, which means you will avoid re-infection of cucumber beds.
Support cucumber - use trellis
Cucumber plants are climbing, exciting new spaces with each new day, so the cucumber lash must provide good support, in the form of a trellis.
A pallet can be made from any available means: ropes, twine, twigs, bars, etc. The main thing is that the vines should be aimed upward, wrapping and grabbing free space.
A good trellis for cucumbers will save you from most pest and rot problems throughout the growing season of cucumbers. By the way, the trellis should be strong enough to withstand the squally wind in a thunderstorm.
If your cucumber variety forms compact bushes, you can do without a trellis, the main thing is that cucumber whips do not spread along the ground
Crop cucumbers regularly
Crop of cucumbers must be cleaned daily! Regular harvesting contributes to the formation of a large number of ovaries and helps to avoid overgrowth of the fruit.
It is especially important to regularly collect gherkins and cucumbers of small, pickling varieties. Only in this case, home canned cucumbers will be crisp and equal in size.
Well, here, perhaps, all the cucumber secrets! We wish you a great harvest of cucumbers!
Equip a cozy greenhouse
In order for cucumbers, planting and caring for which require special attention, to grow healthy, the greenhouse for these plants must be strong enough.
To withstand gusts of wind and the severity of snow. The best size of the greenhouse: height 1.8-2 m, about 2.5 m along the ridge (do not forget that whip cucumbers can grow to a great length).
The frame is best to make metal or wood. Recently, greenhouse made of cellular polycarbonate has become popular (this material is very durable, resilient, and has a high thermal insulation).
- The ideal greenhouse for cucumbers should be well ventilated, otherwise there will be a risk of loss of seedlings. Indeed, in a confined space, plant diseases spread extremely rapidly and cover all plantings.
It is best to locate the greenhouse in the direction from north to south - thus, cucumbers in the greenhouse will be evenly lit throughout the day.
Try to avoid shading from neighboring trees. Our cucumbers love the sun very much.
If it is a pity to cut down trees - when planting, seedlings will have to be placed less than once in two.
And do not forget to tension the trellis wire along the cucumber beds under the ceiling to make it easier to harvest and care for cucumber crops.
Cucumbers in the greenhouse, soil preparation
Cucumbers need a tasty Zemke, light and fertile, with a neutral reaction (optimal pH of 6.5-7).
The soil for plants should be perfectly absorb and retain moisture. The ideal composition of the land for greenhouse seedlings:
- Fresh humus and turfy land in equal quantities, enriched with fertilizers: superphosphate (1 kg), potassium sulfate (500 g) and ammonium nitrate (100 g) per square meter. m
- For a baking powder (it should occupy no more than a third of the total soil), old pine sawdust and peat are added.
If your greenhouse is new and fresh, for cucumbers in a greenhouse you need to prepare in advance a special soil of the same number of parts of peat, humus and compost.
- According to the advice of experienced gardeners, the soil in the greenhouse after the cucumbers should be completely replaced every 5-6 years.
Before planting, remove the top layer of soil by 15-20 cm and pour the prepared mixture.
The entire area is thoroughly watered with a 7% solution of copper sulphate (0.5 l per square meter) or a solution of potassium permanganate (3 g per 10 l of water) - this should be done for disinfection.
We dig the ground well. Before planting in the ground, we make fertilizers for digging, distributing to the whole depth of the fertile layer:
- Organic Manure or compost (2-3 buckets per sq. M.).
- Mineral Superphosphate (80 g), urea (30 g) and potassium sulfate (30 g).
Every autumn, when all the residues of cucumber tops in the greenhouse are removed, we will need to treat all the lower parts of the greenhouse with a bleach solution (40 g of lime per 12 liters of water).
If you live in cold regions with harsh climate - you can not do without the "warm" beds of compost or fresh manure (for this manure or compost lay on the bed about a meter wide, top with a loose 25 cm high ground and pour).
It will be very useful for the northern latitudes biofuel.
◊ Biofuels. It is necessary for the "launch" of a warm bed. To save valuable time, experienced northern gardeners are laying biofuels in the fall.
To do this, dig a couple of trenches along the greenhouse with a depth of 40-50 cm and 40 cm wide. They are filled with fresh manure, covered with soil on top of 20 cm.
- If manure is too expensive, it can be diluted, sandwiched with last year's compost and sawdust of coniferous trees in a proportion of 2x1 (2 parts of manure and 1 part of sawdust, compost).
Then the collar for cucumbers in the greenhouse is covered with a film or acrylic for two weeks.
And in the spring, 2-3 weeks before disembarking in the beds, they make a spade with a spade every half meter (do this even if the ground is still frozen).
In each hole lay 2-3 pieces of unslaked lime and pour warmed water. Then again cover piles with film.
When extinguishing, heat will be intensely released - you will see the effect when the greenhouse windows become misting inside.
This heat is quite enough to "run" warm beds. With warm beds growing cucumbers in the greenhouse will bring you an early and abundant harvest.
How to plant cucumbers. As a rule, seedlings are planted in greenhouse conditions from May 1 to 20 (for the middle belt areas). It is advisable if the weather is overcast at this time.
Rows for seedlings are better located from north to south - this is to increase the resistance of cucumbers to diseases. Soil carefully loosened and leveled.
- The cucumber beds should be 15–20 cm high, about 50–80 cm wide. The distance between the rows should be about 60–80 cm. It is best to place the landing in a checkerboard pattern.
Planting cucumbers in a greenhouse requires a certain distance: between seedlings 40-50 cm, between rows 80-100 cm (this can accommodate up to 4 plants per square meter).
When planting in a warm ridge, seeds can not be prepared in advance (do not germinate or soak). Simply place 2 dry seeds in each well.
Pour the well with warm water and stir. Seedlings of cucumbers in the greenhouse need to be planted in the resulting dirt, not removing the clod of earth.
For each seat, lower the harness or the trellis net from the trellis wire.
- By the way, cucumbers twist better on jute ropes and are not very fond of synthetics.
If you have a compost greenhouse, then it is better to plant the sprouting cucumbers in peat pots or cups in advance, because the temperature of the soil in the compost beds is slightly lower than in the manure.
After sowing the beds, cover with a film so that the cucumbers are warm.
Cucumbers in the greenhouse, take care of our pets
At night, it should not fall below + 14 ° C.
On very hot days, do not forget to regularly air the greenhouse (you can leave it open all day).
In winter, water once a week, morning or afternoon on sunny days.
During warm periods, 2 times a week, on sunny days once every two days.
Flowering plants need to be watered only at the root, otherwise you can bring down the pollen.
◊ Feeding cucumbers. Cucumbers need to be fed regularly (every two weeks). Perform this procedure after watering.
Make the first fertilization when the plant has the 3rd true leaf. For the whole season we feed about 5 times.
♦ non-root dressing. If cucumbers in the greenhouse weaken and reduce their activity, it is necessary to conduct foliar dressing.
Such a procedure can increase by 15-20% the yield of cucumbers and the quality of the fruits themselves. Foliar dressing do only in gloomy weather, or closer to the evening.
- Urea (10-15 g), superphosphate (10-20 g), potassium chloride (10-15 g), mother solution of trace elements (1 tablet or 10 ml).
♦ Root top dressing. Root top dressing needs to be brought to a depth of 4-5 cm with a distance of 6-7 cm from the stem of the plant.
- Superphosphate (10-15 g), potassium chloride (3-8 g) per square meter m
- Organics: a solution of a mullein with water (proportion 1x5), chicken manure with water (proportion 1x10) or ash with water (2 cups per 10 liters).
Cucumber creeper formation
Formation of cucumbers should be carried out in conditions of low humidity - so the plants will transfer the procedure easier and will heal faster.
After a couple of days after planting, we need to tie up the stems of the plants to the support. For this convenient trellis.
Stretch the wire in three rows along the whole ridge at a height:
- 1 row 15-20 cm,
- 2 row 60-80 cm
- 3 row 150-180 cm.
We will tie up lash of cucumbers in the greenhouse to them with a string. You can use the finished mesh made of polymer, which must be placed, slightly inclined, in the form of a tent.
Trellis will facilitate the care of cucumbers, increase their yield and avoid many plant diseases.
When your cucumbers grow by more than 30 cm, carefully wrap the vine around the supporting wire (pull the whip through the top wire row and lower it down).
Then the vine itself will start to curl and cling to the twine with antennae. To form a plant is best in one stem.
- Experienced gardeners have long noticed one pattern: the higher the cucumber vine, the more good and strong fruits the cucumber forms.
The bottom five true cucumber leaves in the greenhouse we need to "blind" (remove from the sinuses stepsons and flowers).
In the next five nodes, leave on the fruit, in the next five - two fruits each, and then three ovaries.
Next to each future fruit you need to leave only one leaf. As soon as the cucumber reaches the growth of the greenhouse ceiling, it is necessary to carefully break off the main stem.
- Never! Do not pinch along with the removal of sick, yellowed leaves - the infection can rapidly spread to the entire cucumber vine plants and lead to cucumber death.
Make sure that the grown up landing is not shaded by the neighboring, regularly remove excess leaves and shoots.
Pinching cucumbers is done very carefully and on time. If you begin to remove the side shoots that have grown more than 20-30 cm - the plant may weaken and reduce its yield.
How to grow cucumbers in combination with other types of vegetables. Very many novice gardeners make one mistake - they start growing crops in greenhouses (under the same roof) with completely different, opposite care requirements.
Suppose a cucumber and tomato. The latter, by the way, is able to secrete fungicides that inhibit the growth and development of cucumbers.
- If you plan to combine cucumbers in a greenhouse with other crops that are opposite in agrotechnology, this is possible. But only in this case, you need to separate the different types of acrylic partition between them. Or place them at the greatest distance from each other (in opposite corners of the greenhouse, for example).
Council Significantly save the useful greenhouse area can be placed between the trellis with cucumber vines different green crops (dill, lettuce, Chinese cabbage, onions, etc.).
Cucumbers also take root well with eggplant and pepper.
Pollination is a very important process, because the future crop of cucumbers depends on it.
In enclosed spaces, as a rule, self-pollinated varieties of cucumbers are used for the greenhouse. Artificial pollination is not necessary for such species.
But it is necessary for pollinated plants, especially in the cold period, when pollinating insects (bumblebees, wasps, bees, beetles, butterflies and flies) have not yet appeared on the street.
- During flowering cucumbers appear female and male inflorescences. To pollinate the plant, the pollen from the male inflorescence needs to get to the female. And moreover, in large quantities (the fruit has many embryonic seeds, which all need to be pollinated).
A male flower differs from a female one in the absence of a thickening of an oblong shape, which is found at the base of a female flower. It is this thickening that will become the future cucumber.
As a rule, male flowers are located on the main stem near the base of the plant. Recognize them very easily. So, proceed to the pollination of cucumbers in the greenhouse:
- Find a pollinator (male flower or stamen).
- Tear it and remove all the petals.
- Take the stamen by the process and “poke” them inside the female flower.
You can use a thick brush (normal, for painting) with natural bristles. Swipe it over the male flower so that pollen will settle on the bristles of the brush (it is yellow and looks like dry dust).
Then lower the brush with pollen inside the female flower and move it over the pistils so that the pollen gets and remains on them.
- Mark flowers that are already pollinated so as not to repeat the procedure.
- Isolate the buds that are about to bloom. Use cotton wool for this. Male flowers need to isolate better (so that insects could not penetrate there and collect pollen before you).
- Опыление огурцов в теплице проводите на вторые сутки после распускания цветов. Идеальное время для процедуры опыления – раннее утро.
- После процедуры можно оставить мужской цветок в женском, чтобы добиться максимального результата.
During the daytime, especially in sunny weather, leave the doors of the greenhouse open so that insects can safely fly inside.
For their better attraction, you can spray the plants with sugar syrup: sugar (1-2 tbsp. L) is diluted with a liter of warm water.
♦ Few ovaries. If your cucumbers give little ovaries. after harvest, reduce the temperature and slightly hold the plants at + 18 ° C. Additionally feed your pets with bird droppings.
♦ Lots of ovaries, but no fruits. Cucumbers just "hungry." Feed them with mullein - it will spur their growth and development. You can also feed them with the following solution: a handful of humus, a pinch of urea in a bucket of water.
♦ blanched leaves. Cucumbers in the greenhouse is not enough nitrogen. give them what they want: dilute urea (50 g) in water (10 l) and water the plants.
♦ Grow very lush and bloom poorly. They need potash-phosphorus top dressing at the rate of a fertilizer bucket for 8-10 holes.
Clean ripe cucumbers need a couple of days later, without leaving a ripe fruit on the vine. Otherwise, the plant will reduce its yield and slow down the growth and development of other ovaries.
Finally, I propose to watch a very informative video about three ways of forming cucumbers lash vertically.
See you soon, dear readers, and a rich harvest for you!
The seed cucumber is an annual plant of the dicotyledon class of the pumpkin family. Its country of origin is India, where it grows wild and is still at the foot of the Himalayas.
- “Rough” stem with antennae can be stretched to a length of two meters or more.
- It has five-pointed sheets heart-shaped.
- Green multi-seeded fruits of different shades are very fragrant and juicy. Their shape is oblong and is defined in the botanical reference books as "pumpkin".
- Elongated and flat seeds are usually whitish in color.
- This vegetable improves intestinal function, digestion and is dietary.
- Stimulates the functioning of the kidneys and heart muscle.
- Freshly made juice cleans the joints well and heals external ulcers. In addition, it is useful for gums and teeth, as well as cleans and whitens the skin.
The main conditions for growth
To grow cucumbers in the open field you need to comply with certain terms, conditions and methods of growing this vegetable:
- The planting dates should exclude the “meeting” of planted cucumbers with frosts.
- If this crop clings along the trellis, the harvest will be higher.
- Solar illumination will contribute to a good raising of cucumbers in the garden.
- Landing is not desirable to carry out in the wind.
Cucumbers will grow better on those beds where in the previous season tomatoes or cabbage (cauliflower, light-colored) ripened. Potatoes, carrots, peppers, and onions are also considered good predecessors.
It is not recommended to re-grow cucumbers in the old place, as well as in the places where other pumpkin plants (watermelon or melon) used to grow.
Preparing seeds and planting material
High-quality preparation of planting material is the key to a good harvest. Therefore, the selection of seeds, their germination and preparation of seedlings for soil should be carried out properly.
Seed growing technology
When choosing seeds, consider the following:
Terms of their ripening, as they are early maturing, mid-season or late.
The possibility of growing in open ground.
Hybrid varieties, because hybrids are less susceptible to diseases, but their fruits are almost unsuitable for gathering "under the seeds."
The objectives of growing cucumbers based on the form in which you want to use the final product: salted or fresh. Therefore, initially you need to choose the appropriate varieties.
A very important point is the zoning under a certain area, where cucumbers will be grown.
The shelf life of cucumber seeds for about 6 years in a dry room at a temperature of 2−25 degrees.
We sprout at home
To grow cucumbers in open beds you need to properly prepare the seeds for sowing or seedlings at home.
We choose large seeds, which are usually the strongest. Dip them in saline (3%), shake and incubate for about 15 minutes.
Floated seeds are discarded, and the rest are washed, placed in a solution of manganese (1%) for half an hour. Then they need to be washed and placed for 5−6 hours in a special solution of wood ash, then dry well.
You can warm the seeds on the stove or battery for about a day or place it in hot water (about 60 degrees) for several hours.
Seeds are preferably germinated in fabric bags or cloths in a solution of nitrophoska (teaspoon per liter of warm water). Then they need to be washed and put on a damp cloth or wet sawdust, and cover the top. The temperature should not be below 23 degrees.
Seeds should swell and then roll, but without germination.
When the root appears extends into half the seed - you can start planting in pots for seedlings or open ground.
For faster cultivation of cucumbers in the beds it is recommended to use seedlings, which can be prepared at home, giving it a solar illumination about 12 hours a day.
First, a container of the required dimensions is prepared: 12/12 or 10/10 cm from paper milk bags or plastic.
Then they are filled with a mixture of earth with peat or humus.
Seeds are sown to a depth of no more than 3 cm.
You need to grow about a month.
Before planting in open ground, cucumber seedlings should have 3-4 complete leaves and roots.
Seedlings also need to make a few hours in the shade of the street for her "hardening."
Soil preparation for planting
It is desirable to prepare the open ground for planting in the fall. To do this, do the following:
Increased acidity of the soil is reduced by hydrated lime, crushed chalk, deoxidizing agents, wood or peat ash.
For this, humus, compost, peat or manure will do. Per meter area will require 7−8 kilograms for each type.
Potassium sulfate (mineral fertilizer) is poured at the rate of 60 grams per ten-meter area.
Superphosphate is added to sandy soil.
After the soil dries out (spring), we form a high bed for cucumbers. We make organic fertilizers or make a complete line of manure. We introduce ammonium nitrate, as well as thirty grams of superphosphate per square meter of land.
To do this, we close the ridge with a transparent film, and when it begins to “soar”, we plant cucumbers.
Sowing and planting
In open soil, cucumbers are planted with seeds or seedlings.
The distance between the bushes when disembarking should be at least twenty centimeters, and the row spacing from one meter. Along the ridge after planting, pegs are fitted on which the fishing line or rope is pulled. Then cucumbers are tied to them. Thus, a support is created for the cultivation of cucumber lashes.
For sowing cucumbers with seeds, it is necessary that the earth and the air be warmed to 12 and 15 degrees, respectively. You can plant nests or rows:
Rows have lines of 70–90 centimeters, the distance between the holes should be 12–20 centimeters, the depth of landing is 3–4 centimeters. Sowing is desirable to orient to the edge of the ridge and sow two seeds in the recess. In the future, you can thin out.
Nests are usually made 60/60 centimeters and 4-5 cucumber seeds are sown in each.
To prevent the cucumbers from freezing, for the first few weeks and when the air temperature drops below 15 degrees, the beds cover overnight.
- The soil must be protected from the appearance of a crust.
- Quickly remove weeds.
- Immediately tie up the cucumbers.
- Loosen the beds immediately after watering.
- In the course of the week, feed more than once.
For proper care, you will need to perform a number of fairly simple but mandatory actions:
We do it twice: in the period of the appearance of this first sheet and the second, when 3 or 4 sheets were formed.
Spray the plant with a sugar mixture or honey solution to attract honey insects.
Loosen, thin and cultivate
We do at the same time in the first few weeks of cultivation, but at the same time we try not to damage the roots.
It is done up to five times in nests and in rows, as well as at least three times in between rows.
It should be easy to avoid stagnant moisture under the seedlings. This will prevent possible diseases.
It is carried out with sawdust or straw for a good supply of oxygen to the soil, as well as to reduce moisture loss.
It is carried to the shrub trellis or pegs as cucumber growth.
The optimum temperature for daytime is 23−28 degrees, and for the night - 13−16 degrees.
On the main cucumber stalk there are flowers of a male type. The ovaries of the female "class" are located on the lateral branches of the second and third levels. Non-expressed female flowers are stimulated by pinching the top of a cucumber shoot over the fifth or seventh leaf.
Do not forget about phosphate and potash additives. Next to the cucumber you can lay out a fresh mullein.
If cucumbers have both types of flowers on the main stem (male and female), then pinching them is not necessary.
Issues associated with watering cucumbers, are quite an important aspect. Overdrying or pouring bushes is absolutely not recommended.
With a lack of moisture, the plant sheds flowers and ovaries, and the fruits begin to taste bitter. In case of its excess, root rot can form.
The peculiar requirements of cucumbers to soil moisture are due to some features of the plant:
The root cucumber system is rather superficial, therefore it dries quickly.
The growing number of large leaves evaporates a lot of moisture.
During cultivation, it is advisable to water the plants in the morning, so that the soil under the cucumbers is already dry by night. Water procedures should be carried out already with partial drying of the soil and watered at the root, without affecting the foliage. Although in strong heat, a slight spraying of the sheet cover will not be superfluous. Water should be around 25 degrees.
The rate of water may depend on the type of soil, weather, the plant itself, but on average it is about 30 liters per square meter. During flowering or fruiting, the vegetable root system especially needs moisture.
Excess or lack of water is determined by the leaves, which become pale with an excess of moisture or acquire a dark green shade, as well as fragility, if it is not enough.
The first feeding of cucumbers is done when there are several full sheets. The second (increased 2 times) - after two weeks.
You can fertilize directly in the wells, but without falling on the cucumber greens. Top dressing options:
The tank is filled with cow dung by one third, the rest is filled with water and mixed. After 7–14 fermentation, add ash and add water before fertilizing.
In a ten-liter bucket of water you need to pour 10 grams of superphosphate, potassium salt and ammonium nitrate. You can add sand if the ground is heavy.
Cucumbers are sprayed with a solution of urea on the leaves (5 grams of fertilizer per 1 liter of water). In sunny weather, such a procedure is strictly not recommended, in order to avoid burns on the sheets.
If the cucumber becomes pear-shaped - potassium is added. In the case when the end of the cucumber sharpens, bends and brightens - you need to add nitrogen.
When growing cucumbers need to be initially ready to fight pests.
The best and most effective ways are routine prophylaxis and proper care. For this you need:
- To disinfect the seeds by heating and potassium permanganate.
- Observe the spatial isolation of plants.
- It is reasonable to alternate landing.
- Ensure the correct moisture regime.
- Timely remove weeds, as well as diseased cucumber specimens.
Problems of fungal diseases
One of the main problems in the cultivation of cucumbers is their infection with fungal diseases. These include:
The appearance of spots that capture the entire sheet, acquiring powdery powder. In this case, the diseased leaves later die off. If you do not remove the weeds and the remains of diseased plants, then next year the young shoots will suffer the same infection. Especially this disease develops in the hot period.
To protect the drug is used NAT (fifty grams of the drug in a bucket of water). It is necessary to spray at the very beginning of this cucumber "disease". For the prevention of used whey.
The occurrence of brown or yellow spots on the leaves. The whole plant is infected along with the fruits on which ulcers appear and they begin to rot. This disease contributes to high humidity. For treatment using a one-percent solution of Bordeaux mixture.
Occurrence of a gray-brown spot. In diseased places, part of the leaf falls out, and ulcers appear on young cucumbers. Low temperature and wet season contribute to the development of this disease. The treatment is similar to the previous one.
The plant stalks are moistened, the leaves sag and the vegetable dies. Appears like a cotton wool, white plaque. Fruits become decrepit. Disease is accompanied by a cool dry summer.
The affected parts need to be cut and burned, and the “wounds” should be missed with crushed coal or lime.
Most fungal diseases are effectively treated with blue vitriol. The affected parts are cut off and burned, and the planting is sprayed.
Disease resistant varieties can be planted. These include:
Collection of grown cucumbers
New young cucumbers are desirable to collect every few days, although it is possible more often. At the time of the ripped fruit is very fragrant, crunchy and juicy, with a thin crust. After harvesting, new healthy ovaries begin to be created, from which new cucumbers will grow in the near future. Fresh fruit will begin to appear more and more.
And if the fruits are removed out of time, they become rough, large and overripe. Accordingly, this affects their taste, and on top of that, the process of growing new and healthy cucumbers slows down.
Depending on the purpose and purpose, cucumbers are taken in different sizes:
- For food “straight from the garden,” they try to pluck small and juicy fruits about ten centimeters in size or more with “pimples”.
- For canning, from three to eighteen centimeters are collected depending on the recipe.
- The length and shape of the fruit is influenced by the appropriate variety, type of soil, regularity of irrigation and methods of growing cucumbers.
Harvesting cucumbers is best done in the morning or in the evening.
It is recommended to cut off fruits with scissors or a knife, and then to protect them from hit of direct sunshine.
Properly grown and harvested cucumbers can be stored until deep frost until overdried. And when, on a winter day, a jar with fragrant blanks or freshly frozen cucumbers will appear on the table, you will involuntarily recall the bright sunny days of summer. And you will only be glad that at your summer cottage you had a place and time to grow such a wonderful vegetable as cucumber.
How to grow cucumber seedlings?
This is the most important stage, because the harvest depends on the correctness of the work. I must say that initially you need to prepare the ground. It is more correct to recruit land where in the future culture will grow.
Thus, you can help plants adapt more quickly to virgin soil. So, for bookmarking you need a container and a certain amount of land. Many recommend not to use additional supplements, and feed the plants during growth.
In the selected container you need to fill the ground, mark the rows. The pits must be made not deep, be sure to plant the seeds in water. Remember that the distance between plants should be sufficient so that at the time of transplantation there was an opportunity to move the plant freely, without affecting the next crop.
Do not forget that:
1. Seeds plant spout up - this is the main rule.
2. When the seeds are in the ground, it is highly undesirable to provide them with abundant watering. The earth should be wet, but not too much.
Place for growing cucumbers
For normal growth, cucumbers need abundant watering and the sun, so they require a sunny area. It is very good to plant them in a place where tomatoes, peppers or onions were previously grown. Many experts are convinced that the most productive option for a new crop is the territory that was empty in the past years. But, unfortunately, there are few or no such sites in many gardens.
Growing cucumbers in the greenhouse and in the open field - these are two different technologies, each method requires special knowledge. When you start transplanting seedlings into open ground, do not forget that for young cucumbers the soil temperature is more important than the air temperature - this means that you need to choose the right time for planting.
Ways to grow cucumbers
After your seedlings are ready for planting, they form an area for cucumbers. Curly shoots attached to the trellis pillars and stretch on the grid or wire. This technique is convenient not only for picking cucumbers, but also to ensure the most productive conditions for the development of crops.
In a barrel. The most beautiful and elegant landing method. С помощью нескольких бочек ваша грядка преобразиться, а ваши огурчики приобретут свой собственный дом. Только не забывайте, что подготовить тару нужно с осени, а заполнять ранней весной. Дренажом может служить что угодно - бумага, мелкие камни или кусочки кирпичей, затем бочку заполняют органическими отходами (листвой, газонной травой, сорняками ( без семян)).The final layer is laid on the ground or finished compost. Cucumbers in barrels require more frequent watering.
Adding an article to a new collection
Not enough space, but I want to get the maximum yield of cucumbers? Do you want to effectively use the available space, but do not know how to do it? This article is for you.
We offer several effective ways to grow cucumbers in a small area. Today you will learn how to get maximum benefits in a minimal space.
What it is?
Some gardeners, without knowing it, use the following method of cultivation: to whip cucumbers do not spread out on the ground, they are tied up vertically. This is the essence of growing cucumbers on the trellis. The latter are special constructions of support, on which cucumbers later "rise".
In this method of growing cucumbers, many undoubted advantages:
- space saving
- the ability to create drip irrigation,
- good lighting of landings
- fruits remain clean and do not outgrow,
- ease of care (easier to artificially pollinate, weed, process, collect, etc.).
Features of growing cucumbers on the trellis
- In the autumn, on a plot where a tapestry is to be placed, deposit humus at the rate of 10 kg per 1 sq. M and dig up shovels on the bayonet (do not crush clumps). Spring level the soil with a rake.
- When creating a tapestry design, think over the mobile version - after all, you will later have to “relocate” cucumbers to new, unexploited beds.
- Place trellis racks at a distance of 0.5 m from each other. On the rack pull 3 rows of wire - top, center and bottom. Attach a grid with cells of approximately 15 × 18 cm to the wire. Try to make the construction height at least 180 cm.
- To protect the soil from weeds and drying, cover the bed with black film.
- When the ground warms up well (at least up to 14 ° C and to a depth of at least 15 cm), you can transfer the seedlings to the ground or sow the seeds. To do this, make small cuts in the film and put in them 2-3 seeds or one seedling.
Follow the plants: until 6 true leaves appear, pull out all the ovaries. This will lead to a later, but more abundant crop of cucumbers.
Notice the direction of growth of cucumbers and "help" them to occupy the available space on the trellis. If the whips could not catch themselves, tie them with a string or string.
To make cucumbers ripen a lot and they were all smooth and beautiful, get rid of dried and sick leaves in time, pinch off male flowers and ugly Zelentsy so that the plant does not spend strength on their development.
When the fruits reach 6 cm in length, collect them so that the plant does not go hungry, and the following cucumbers do not grow crooked or bitter.
It is easy to care for cucumbers on the trellis, and such plantings look very neat.
2. Growing cucumbers in a barrel
Growing cucumbers in a barrel has recently become increasingly popular, and for good reason, because there are many advantages to this method:
- space saving for planting and mobility of such "beds",
- saving time and effort on cucumber care,
- visual appeal - cucumber whips camouflage the barrel,
- clean fruits that are convenient to collect.
How to grow cucumbers in a barrel?
Barrels for cucumbers need to be prepared in advance. As soon as the snow melts, fill the metal barrels with vegetable food waste, old grass, alternating layers with soil or rotted manure. To make fermentation faster, spill layers with EM preparations. Then pour the resulting mass with hot water, cover with foil and leave for 7-10 days.
After this time the mass will settle - re-fill the barrels to the top and repeat the procedure until the beginning of May.
In no case do not put meat or fish waste in the barrel for growing cucumbers.
In May 10, sprinkle about 10 cm of soil on the plant remains, scald it with boiling water, sprinkle with a pink solution of potassium permanganate and plant cucumber seeds (6-8 pieces per barrel). Cover the barrel with cellophane or black film.
If in the center of the barrel to install a small bucket (1 l) and regularly fill it with water, cucumbers will grow like yeast.
When 3 leaves appear on the seedlings, attach to the barrel a frame of arcs, along which cucumber lashes will curl later.
By the middle of June, when it is already possible to remove the shelter, the barrel will be filled with only 3/4 of the earth (it will settle again), and the lash of cucumbers will already reach the metal arcs. After they overgrow over the edge of the barrel and will be outside.
The most important point at this stage is the correct and regular watering of the plants. There is no need to pinch or weed them.
Barreled cucumbers look very original and attractive
3. Growing cucumbers in bags
Vertical cucumber beds can be arranged in bags or bags. The advantages of this method include:
- space saving
- bed mobility,
- early ripening of cucumbers,
- ease of care for planting and harvesting.
However, it is worth noting that for growing cucumbers in this way, some materials are needed, as well as time to create such a vertical bed. In addition, in bags there is a risk of overwetting the soil, and therefore you need to be very careful when watering the plants.
How to make a "bag" for growing cucumbers?
Sugar bags with a volume of 100-120 l are ideal for this method of cultivation. In addition, to create a suitable design will need:
• wooden stick 2 m long,
• thick fishing line or cord - 30 m,
• hollow tubes with a diameter of 30 cm and a length of 1 m - 3 pcs.,
• tent pegs (or self-made wire) - 10 pcs.,
• ground for cucumbers.
Nail a few nails to the top of the wooden stick to attach fishing line or rope to it. In each tube, make holes along the entire length in a staggered manner. Place the selected bag or bag in the correct area and fill it up to the top with earth. Place a wooden stake in the middle of the bag and place hollow tubes around it. Make small cuts on one side of the bag. Plant 3 seedlings in each bag.
Hollow tubes will be your irrigation system - pour water or liquid supplements into them. Feel the ground through the cuts in the bag to see if the plants need watering.
If summer is hot, watering cucumbers in bags is necessary every day, and if not so much, then once a week.
The appearance of the first cucumber mustache - the time to create supports for plants. Stick around each bag pegs, to each of which attach at the end of the fishing line, and attach the other ends of these lines to the top of the wooden pole inserted into the bag. So you get a kind of hut, on the roof of which will curl cucumber whip.
It is convenient and pleasant to harvest the crops from the beds-bags - the fruits are beautiful and clean.
How to grow cucumbers on the balcony?
It is possible to sow cucumbers for their subsequent cultivation on the balcony at the end of December or in the middle of winter if you can clearly control the temperature.
If this is not possible, sow cucumbers for seedlings a month before they are transplanted to a permanent place. Before sowing the seeds, you need to hold a number of activities:
- hold the seeds for 20 minutes in a pink solution of potassium permanganate,
- put the seeds on wet gauze and wait for them to germinate.
Clustered cucumber seeds are ready for sowing in small pots. Sow in one container, one seed. Sowing depth - no more than 2 cm. Then put the containers on the insulated loggia or balcony. The air temperature should be about 23-26 ° C. Over the next 26-28 days, spend a few fertilizing cucumbers.
When shoots appear, transfer the containers to a well-lit place (a warmed balcony or window sill are ideal for this purpose). For good development, seedlings during this period need the following air temperature:
Such conditions will contribute to the good development of cucumber seedlings.
Transplant the grown seedlings with a lump of earth into the prepared and pre-disinfected soil in narrow, but long boxes. If the balcony is closed, you can place the boxes in any lit place. If the balcony is open, then put the boxes only in the corners to protect the landing from the strong wind.
Growing cucumbers on the balcony or on the windowsill is a snap
It is possible to disinfect the soil for seedlings by spilling it with a warm solution of potassium permanganate.
In such conditions, seedlings are grown for another 30-45 days. When the 3rd true leaf appears, the bee-pollinating variety waits for pinching. If you grow hybrids, then you do not need to pinch the plants. Full leaflets say that cucumbers can be transplanted in larger boxes.
Aftercare for cucumbers includes several points:
- regular removal of whiskers to form only one stem
- removal of side shoots
- nipping the top of the main shoot (when it grows to the right size),
- protection of cucumbers from the harsh wind,
- regular watering of plants
- preventive treatments against diseases and pests.
As you can see, growing cucumbers can be a pleasant, simple and aesthetically appealing affair.