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Growing oyster mushrooms at home for beginners: step by step instructions

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If you decide to independently grow mushrooms, it is better to start with oyster mushrooms. Growing these mushrooms at home does not require the study of complex theoretical information or special skills. Oyster mushrooms are not as demanding as other species (for example, champignons). Another argument in their favor will be high yields. Of them you can cook a lot of delicious dishes, the taste of which will not leave anyone indifferent. Let us see what are the ways to grow oyster mushrooms and how to cope with the difficulties encountered by beginners.

Growing methods, their pros and cons

There are two ways to grow oyster mushrooms at home - extensive and intensive.

Positive aspects of the first method:

  • it does not require the creation of special conditions, since ripening requires the natural environment,
  • for the same reason, for the extensive method you do not have to spend a lot of money
  • in addition, the mushrooms in this case do not need constant monitoring.

But there are negative points:

  • the appearance of the harvest depends entirely on the season and suitable weather,
  • ripening period is quite long,
  • because of the impossibility of control, it will not be possible to turn this hobby into a business and grow mushrooms for sale at home.

With intensive technology, the conditions for growing are created by the mushroom grower at home.

Advantages of the intensive method:

  • the ability to control the time of harvest,
  • it is possible to regulate the amount of the harvest - when using this method it will be more,
  • thanks to this, there is the possibility of selling mushrooms and compensating for costs.

  • will have to make more effort and spend a lot of time doing landings,
  • cash investments will also be required - to create the necessary conditions at home.

With the intensive method, the mushrooms ripen in the basement or other suitable room.

Mycelium selection

First of all, you need to purchase “seeds” - they are called mycelium in mushrooms. Recently, it is much easier to do this - there are quite a few online stores with mail delivery throughout the country. But there are local companies. For beginners who fear failure, it is enough to purchase one kilogram of mycelium. The result will be about three to four kilograms of mushrooms. You can purchase material in advance. Mycelium is stored in the refrigerator for up to two months, but you cannot put it in the freezer. Do not hit the mycelium on the skin, so when opening the package, do not forget to wear gloves.

When buying, pay attention to the following recommendations.

  • Check the reviews on the store or an individual seller.
  • Even if you are an experienced mushroom grower, purchase a small amount of planting material from a new supplier for the first time.
  • Examine all the information about the selected variety, time of fouling of the mycelium, resistance to the appearance of mold.
  • Check the expiration date on the package.
  • Immediately after delivery, check the temperature of the mycelium - it should be about +20 degrees Celsius.
  • On the mycelium should not be black and green spots.
  • The color of the "seeds" - bright orange, interspersed with yellow.

Growing on stumps

If you are a beginner and are not yet ready to invest a lot of manpower and money in mushroom cultivation, try the extensive method.

To plant oyster mushrooms in this way, you need not so many materials.

  • Hemp which is on a site of your house. But they can be sown only in late April or early May, when a constant high temperature is established.
  • Pruning of deciduous trees such as beech or aspen. They should be no more than half a meter in height and fifteen centimeters in diameter.

Carefully check each stump - there should be no mold on them.

If the wood is dry, soak it for several days in water. Only in such conditions can the mycelium be developed.

  • drill or cut six centimeters into the stumps of hemp (they must be staggered),
  • the mycelium is placed in these holes,
  • then they need to be closed with moss

There is another way - you need to saw off a disc two centimeters thick from the top of the stump. Apply a layer of mycelium on the cut. Cover with a disk. For strength, nail it.

After sowing, fold logs on each other in a room where the temperature is +15. Leave them there for three months, covered with foil or thick cloth. By the end of the term on the stumps appear white bloom. This means that it is time to plant them. To do this, at a distance of half a meter, dig holes in the ground and fill them with wet leaves. They put hemp - to a depth of fifteen centimeters. The soil around them should always be wet.

The harvest will appear at the end of the summer. You can collect it throughout the fall. For the winter, planting needs to be protected by sprinkling with straw.

Preparation for growing in the basement

To grow oyster mushrooms in an intensive way at home you will need to prepare a basement that meets the following requirements:

  • it should maintain a temperature of +15 degrees,
  • a good ventilation system is needed in the basement,
  • its depth can reach five meters
  • need to create bright lighting
  • in the basement should be a source of clean water.

Other types of premises will do:

The main condition - this basement should not coexist with the living rooms of the house, as disputes can cause allergies.

The next important condition for harvesting is a good substrate. This is a nutrient medium through which mushrooms will grow. To make it you can use:

  • buckwheat husks
  • wheat straw,
  • barley straw
  • corn cobs.

Grind one of these materials or their mixture. Fill it with warm (up to twenty-five degrees) water for twenty minutes. Stir the billet periodically. Drain this water and fill the container with hot water (but not boiling water). Cover with something heavy and leave for five hours. Drain, squeeze out the substrate (residual liquid may cause mold) and add nutrients (urea and superphosphate) to it.

Landing in the basement

In this technology of cultivation it is important not only the place and the basis for planting. Need to prepare and vessels. Oyster mushrooms are usually grown in bags. At home, fit and ordinary garbage bags as much as possible.

Make holes in them at intervals of twenty centimeters. Through these holes, the mushrooms will break out.

Bags need to be filled with substrate and mycelium. The bottom layer should be the substrate - fill fifteen centimeters of the mixture. Sprinkle it with a layer of mycelium. Alternate them, filling the volume of the vessel by 2/3. Bags need to be moved to the basement and put them on top of each other or hung from the ceiling.

Landing care

In the early days of oyster cultivation, it is most important to maintain suitable conditions.

  • The temperature in the bags will increase, but it is important to ensure that it does not reach +30 degrees (when growing at home, in a small basement, it’s enough to use a fan).
  • Do not let flies enter the basement.
  • After three days you can turn on the lights.
  • Humidity in the basement should be about 95% (for this you need to spray the walls and floor with water, but not the landing of oyster mushrooms).

When collecting oyster mushrooms also need to follow some rules.

  • They should not be cut, but unscrewed from the substrate.
  • After harvesting the first harvest, it is important to maintain the same conditions in the basement for two weeks, then another batch will soon appear.

Preparation of mycelium

Purchased mycelium for growing oyster mushrooms

Ready mycelium can be bought in the store. For the first growing experience, you do not need to acquire a lot of material - 1 kg is enough.

Oyster mushroom mycelium

Principles of mycelium selection:

  • buy from trusted vendors
  • look at the color: the mycelium should be white, interspersed with orange and yellow (green and black spots should not be),
  • carefully read the information on the packaging (variety, shelf life, fruiting rate),
  • check the temperature of the package with mycelium: it should not exceed 20ºС,
  • smell: the package should not emit ammonia odor.

After buying packages with mycelium, you need to cool slowly. Before planting, they are stored in a refrigerator at a temperature of 3–4ºС. The maximum shelf life is 2-3 months.

Before laying in the substrate, the mycelium is removed from the refrigerator, heated in a warm room to the temperature of the substrate (so that it does not die from thermal shock) and crushed.

Important! All work with mycelium is carried out under sterile conditions. The room and work surface are disinfected, the mushroom grower works in gloves.

Substrate preparation

The amount of substrate should be 10 kg of material per 1 kg of mycelium.

Suitable for the substrate any plant waste:

  • wheat or barley straw
  • crushed leaves, stalks and corn cobs,
  • cleaning from sunflower seeds,
  • buckwheat hulls
  • sawdust.

Important! The source material should not be rotten or moldy!

To disinfect the substrate and saturate it with moisture, process the material with water or steam. There are three processing options:

  • digestion of dry material in hot water,
  • steam treatment of dry material
  • steam treatment of wet material.

Heat treatment of the substrate

The first method is used most often. Raw materials are placed in a tank, filled with water and boiled for 1.5-2 hours. Then the water is poured, the substrate is sent under pressure and cooled to 25ºС.

In order for the mycelium to develop comfortably, the humidity of the substrate must be optimal.

Tip! How to check the level of humidity? It is necessary to take a lump of material in hand and squeeze it. If the material is well springy, but water does not flow out of it - humidity is ideal. If it gets wet too much, you need to give excess moisture to drain.

After cooling, the substrate is crushed into pieces of 4–5 cm.

Laying mycelium

Laying the mycelium and the substrate into the bags is made in a sterile room: in a room that is intended for incubation.

Step 1. The room is treated with chlorine. Work is carried out in gloves, all tools are wiped with alcohol. Growing bags must also be sterile. For disinfection they are placed for a couple of minutes in bleach solution.

Step 2. If you are growing oyster mushrooms for the first time, take 2 small bags, each of which will hold 5 kg of material, and place mycelium with the substrate there. Fill the bags with the substrate and mycelium

Fill bags with substrate and mycelium

Tip! Lay the mycelium in the substrate in two ways. The first option involves mixing the substrate and mycelium on any surface and then placing the material in bags. The second is bookmarked in layers. It is necessary to take a bag, pour 5–6 cm of substrate into it, then - 0.5 cm of mycelium. And so on to the very top.

Convenient device for filling bags

Step 3. Make a hole in the bag through which sprouts of fungi will sprout. The cuts are staggered every 10–15 cm. The cuts are 1–2 cm long. You can make perforations in the form of holes, “crosses” or “check marks” to make more compact intergrowths.

In the photo holes for the germination of oyster mushrooms

The bags must have openings for the germination of fungi.

Step 4. The finished blocks are placed in the germination room in such a way that the notched sides have unrestricted access of air.

The location of the bags

Incubation takes 10–20 days. At this time, provide the mushrooms with a favorable microclimate:

  • humidity in the room - 70–80%,
  • temperature in the room - no more than 25ºС,
  • the temperature inside the bags is no more than 30ºС, otherwise the mushrooms will not ascend,
  • reduce the temperature with the help of fans, but in no case do not air,
  • do wet cleaning daily.

If done correctly, in 3-4 days you will see that white filaments of mycelium begin to spread along the substrate. In 10–20 days, the mycelium will grow throughout the package. It will acquire a whitish color and characteristic mushroom flavor. Incubation is over and fruiting time begins.

Fruiting

After the end of the incubation period, transfer the packets of mycelium to the fruiting room.

Important! The room for cultivation must be located away from the apartment building. Growing mushrooms secrete spores, which are a powerful allergen.

Mushrooms require a favorable microclimate:

  • temperature - no more than 10–15ºС,
  • room humidity - 90–95%,
  • daylight lighting - 10–12 hours a day,
  • put a humidifier in the room
  • irrigate the walls and the floor with a liquid, but in such a way that it does not fall on the mycelium,
  • Air every 6–8 hours.

After the formation of caps, the mushrooms require daily irrigation. 1-2 times a day, spray the water from above so that it runs down on the oyster caps. During this period, especially closely monitor the ventilation of the room: due to moisture, mushrooms can rot.

Harvesting

After 1.5 months, the mycelium will delight you with fruits. After removing the first mushrooms, new ones will appear in 2–3 weeks. Mycelium can bear fruit up to 4 times, but 75% of the harvest will fall on the first 2 waves.

You can harvest the first harvest

To prevent the mycelium from rotting, the splices of the mushrooms must be twisted off without leaving the feet in the substrate. After harvesting, sort out the substrate, remove the rotted elements from it and put them into the bags again. With proper care, the mycelium bears fruit for up to six months.

On the photo is the harvest of oyster mushrooms

After the 4th harvest, recycle the substrate or use it as a garden fertilizer.

Growing oyster mushrooms extensively

Growing oyster mushrooms extensively

This method involves the cultivation of mushrooms in conditions close to natural.

    Prepare hemp or logs, which will grow mushrooms. Oyster mushrooms love willow, poplar and linden wood, but a good harvest can be obtained from aspen hemp.

Logs for growing oyster mushrooms

Mycelium Layout Scheme

  • Soak the logs, make several deep cuts with a knife on their surface and place in them the purchased mycelium in advance. Cover holes with tree bark or moss.
  • Finished logs placed in the garden. A shady but well-ventilated place should be chosen. The main thing is that hemp does not fall under the direct rays of the sun, otherwise the mycelium will die. Place the logs in small grooves and prikopte ground for stability. You can put leaves or sawdust in the pits.
  • Carefully pour logs over the logs. If the weather is dry, then oyster mushrooms require daily watering.
  • In 1.5–2 months you can harvest the first harvest. In one season, logs bear fruit up to 3-4 times.

    The following year, the logs will bear fruit again, if you do not forget to water them. Mycelium will preserve fertility for 3–5 years.

    Harvest can be harvested for 3-5 years

    Both cultivation options have their own advantages and disadvantages. To make it easier for you to choose the method of growing oyster mushrooms, pay attention to the table.

    Choosing a landing site

    In the first place for these mushrooms should, of course, find a suitable room. You can grow oyster mushrooms, for example, in the basement or cellar, in the garage, in the outhouse, in the extension. The main thing is that throughout the development of mycelium and fruit bodies, the air temperature in the room should remain at +16. 20 ° C.

    Hozbloki, unfortunately, are not available at all suburban areas. In the garage to grow oyster mushrooms is usually not very convenient. Even the fruiting bodies themselves in such a room can "collect" harmful substances. In the annex for these mushrooms it will be difficult to create the necessary level of humidity. Therefore, most often oyster mushrooms are planted in suburban areas in cellars or cellars.

    What substrate can be grown on

    In the wild, oyster mushrooms are harvested from stumps broken by wind or sawed trees. In the same way they are sometimes grown in suburban areas. Such technology is not considered too complicated among summer residents. However, it is unlikely that it will be possible to get large yields of mushrooms on stumps.

    Most often, when growing oyster mushrooms at home, they use a special substrate. On the ground, these mushrooms, of course, will not grow. Oyster mushrooms are usually used for the following types of substrate:

    Straw before laying mycelium put short cut. Sawdust for growing oyster mushrooms can only be used on hardwood.

    When to plant

    If you wish, you can grow oyster mushrooms all year round. However, in the cellars of ordinary gardeners, the air temperature in winter usually decreases too much. Therefore, oyster mushrooms are grown by gardeners most often only in summer. In this case, the mushrooms are best planted in April or May.

    How to make a substrate

    Even for beginners, growing oyster mushrooms will not be too complicated. The main thing is to properly prepare the substrate for mushrooms. Sometimes oyster mushrooms are grown just on bales of straw. In this case:

    bales are set vertically in a warm room,

    pour straw water

    bale nests,

    lay in the nest of the mycelium,

    they cover the nests with straw plugs.

    This technology is simple, but to get too big a crop of mushrooms when it is used will not work. Чтобы повысить в конечном итоге выход вешенок, субстрат стоит приготавливать с использованием специальных стимуляторов и биодобавок. Также для снижения кислотности питательной массы в нее следует добавлять известь, мел или гипс.

    Технология подготовки субстрата для выращивания вешенок в данном случае будет выглядеть так:

    wait until the water has cooled to 70 ° C and add bio-additives and lime (1-2%) in it,

    pour water into a large container

    impose straw in a fabric bag

    put the bag in a container with water,

    after 3 hours take out the bag,

    allowed to drain for 8-10 hours

    You can plant oyster mushrooms and just on the straw or sawdust, and you can prepare a mixed substrate. In this case it will consist of the following components:

    58% wheat or rice straw,

    1% hydrated lime,

    20% wheat straw,

    3% cereal or bean bran,

    1% hydrated lime,

    The use of mixtures prepared in this way allows to increase the yield of oyster mushrooms by about 25-30%.

    As soon as the soaked disinfected substrate, no matter how it is prepared, cools to a temperature of 20-26 ° C, it is possible to start planting the mycelium. Cooling the nutrient mixture is a prerequisite for growing oyster mushrooms. In the hot substrate mycelium will simply die. The finished mixture should be wet, but not sticky. Well suited substrate for sowing crumbles in the hands.

    Where to get mycelium and how to store it

    Gardeners of oyster mushrooms gardeners usually buy in special stores or farms involved in the cultivation of these mushrooms. If desired, the mycelium can also be written out via the Internet. In any case, the purchase of a mushroom oyster mushroom will probably not be too expensive. It is not particularly expensive mycelium.

    Store acquired mycelium at home until seeding, of course, you need to properly. It is believed that:

    until the day mycelium is best stored at a temperature of 20-24 ° C,

    up to 3 days - 15-18 ° C,

    up to 2 weeks - 0-2 ° C

    up to a month - -2-0 ° С.

    In addition to the substrate and mycelium, in order to grow oyster mushrooms at home, you will need to prepare new plastic bags. It is best if they have a size of 350-750 mm. Actually the seeding itself is carried out using this technology:

    at the bottom of the bag is poured the substrate with a thickness of 7-8 mm and compacted,

    on top of the substrate superimposed mycelium, which must first be crushed,

    again the substrate is poured in a layer of 15 cm and compacted,

    the layers alternate until the bag is full.

    Mycelium for planting oyster mushrooms should be used 180-200 g per 7-8 kg of substrate (2.5 buckets). All layers need to be tamped. As soon as the bag is full, it should be tied up and made holes in its sides and bottom for airing and draining excess water.

    Incubation period

    Bags with mycelium and substrate are best to be immediately transported to the basement and hung on the ropes at a distance of 15-30 cm from each other. Of course, the conditions for growing oyster mushrooms must be respected exactly. The temperature of the air in the room should always be maintained at a level of 16-20 ° C.

    Approximately 2 days after seeding, the bags with mycelium should be examined. If white spots are visible in the holes on the substrate, it means that the mycelium develops normally. During the incubation period, the air temperature in the room should not exceed 20-22 grams. At this time, various chemical processes will take place in the substrate, as a result of which it will start to warm slightly. In any case, the temperature in the bags should not rise above 26 ° C. Otherwise, the growth of oyster mushrooms in bags can fail. To reduce the temperature of the mass in the bags, if necessary, by ventilation of the room.

    How to grow oyster mushrooms in the apartment

    In the basement or cellar to get a big harvest of these mushrooms, so it is not too difficult. But if you wish, you can grow oyster mushrooms even in a city apartment. Of course, too many mushrooms in this case can not be obtained. But the process of growing a citizen is likely to take a lot of pleasure.

    It is best to grow oyster mushrooms in an apartment, of course, not in blocks of straw or sawdust. In this case, usually special purchased mushroom beds, which are plastic bags with a ready-made substrate, are used in this case.

    Even for beginners, the cultivation of oyster mushrooms at home with the use of such blanks is not difficult. When using special purchased beds to harvest these mushrooms, proceed as follows:

    pull the bags of substrate out of the box

    water is poured into any container

    poured into the water mineral supplement, complete with beds,

    carefully pour the water on the sides into the mushroom beds,

    close the bed using gum,

    pour water into a large pot and put it on the stove,

    immersed in the pot mushroom beds,

    fix the lid of the pan to the handles with wire,

    boil the beds for 90 minutes

    take them out of the pan.

    Next, leave the beds to cool at room temperature. Sowing mycelium produced as follows:

    put on hands medical rubber gloves,

    making a deep well in the middle of the substrate,

    knead going complete with beds of mycelium,

    take the mycelium in pieces and push it to the fingers in the central channel of the garden,

    push the following pieces.

    This is done until the layer of mycelium reaches the bottom of the bag. Then again close the garden with a rubber band. At the final stage, the bags with mycelium are put back into the box, the valves marked by the manufacturer are opened in it and the bags are cut through them crosswise.

    How to grow on stump

    Such technology by summer residents, as already mentioned, is also used quite often. To grow oyster mushrooms on hemp will not be difficult. Chumps in this case are suitable only from soft hardwood trees, for example, birch.

    In each stump you first need to make a notch. Further in the formed nests lay mycelium. In order for the mushrooms to sprout faster, the hemp is wrapped with plastic wrap.

    Step 1: room preparation

    To organize the home cultivation of oyster mushrooms, you need a properly equipped room, high-quality mycelium (mycelium), a suitable substrate. In the basement mushrooms are grown in two ways:

    1. Natural. Minimum equipment costs, but no more than one crop per year.
    2. Intensive. It requires investments to create and maintain in the basement the microclimate necessary for oyster mushrooms. But it allows you to collect several harvests per season, regardless of weather conditions.

    Council Mushroom pickers often choose the second option. This technology will allow the family to feed and sell some of the mushrooms.

    You should not count on a safe and healthy harvest if you cannot create and maintain such conditions in the basement:

    • purity,
    • air temperature in the range of + 10 ... + 20 ° C,

    • humidity - 85-90%,
    • constant air circulation, well-functioning ventilation,
    • no pests and molds.

    General cleaning at the first stage will help to detect problems in the basement. You may need a total permutation or re-equipment of the room. To grow mushrooms in the winter, take care of tightness, insulation of the basement. Then, in order to maintain the microclimate in the cold, one heater is enough for you, which will turn on for 2-3 hours.

    Cover the ventilation holes with mosquito nets. Mold can be removed manually using special tools or vinegar solution. As a preventive measure, a normal balance of temperature and humidity is sufficient. Pests remove with the help of pest control: smoke bombs or chemical means. Further work in the basement can be started no earlier than a week later.

    Step 2: Substrate Preparation

    When using an intensive method of growing the substrate plays the role of a comfortable moist and breathable environment. It protects oyster mushrooms from mold damage. Experienced mushroom pickers use hardwood shavings. It is easier for beginners to work with buckwheat or sunflower husks, straw of barley or wheat, dry corn stalks.

    Prepare the material before use:

    Step 3: Buying Quality Mycelium

    In order not to lose money in choosing the basis for the reproduction of mushrooms, follow these recommendations:

    1. If you are not sure about the quality of purchased mycelium, take a few small batches from different suppliers.
    2. When buying, study the data on the variety and strain, productivity, resistance to mold, and the time needed to save the crop.
    3. The optimum temperature of the mycelium is about +20 ° C. Check that you do not sell superheated material.
    4. Mycelium should not exude ammonia smell and be covered with black or green spots. Healthy color - bright orange.

    After harvesting, the mycelium is sown in a refrigerator at a temperature of + 3 ... + 4 ° C. In such conditions, the usual mycelium will remain productive up to 3 months., Substrate - up to 9 months. Ask sellers about these conditions. After buying mycelium:

    • arrange packages separately in a well ventilated room,
    • leave for a couple of hours at room temperature,
    • before laying, crush the mushroom base without opening the bag.

    Step 4: Laying Mycelium

    You will need a sterile table. Bags also need to be treated with a disinfecting solution, and then with water. During the work, turn off the ventilation, close the windows and doors. Mix the substrate and mycelium right on the working surface. True proportions for mycelium:

    • domestic raw materials - 3-5% of the total volume of the substrate,
    • foreign-made product - 1.6-2.5%.

    Pour the mixture back into the bags and tamp. The optimum weight of one bale should be 5-15 kg. Slightly flatten the bags and, using a sharp knife, make slits on both wide sides. The length of one - 0.5 cm. This technique will lead to the fact that the mushrooms will break beams.

    Place packages on props or shelves in the same room. Bags should be located not less than 5 cm from the walls and each other and be well blown on all sides. The most favorable air temperature is about +25 ° C. In the block with the substrate may be slightly higher. Care for sowing is simple:

    Attention! Do not overheat the mycelium at +30 ° C or higher.

    Step 5: Cultivating Oyster Mushrooms in the Basement

    In a warm room, bags must lie for 18-25 days. After that, they should be moved to the basement. There the blocks are set vertically. They can be placed on top of each other, but a gap of at least 0.5 m is needed between the columns. The first mushrooms can be collected after 1.5 months. after laying mycelium.

    In the basement you need to maintain optimal conditions for growing oyster mushrooms. The desired light intensity is 5 W / sq. m. To the body of the fungus is ripe dense, not watery, for irrigation, use a humidifier or sprayer. Water with a temperature of + 10 ... + 25 ° C should flow from top to bottom no more than twice a day. After watering, ventilate the room.

    Subsequent waves of fruiting in oyster mushrooms come at an interval of 2-3 weeks. Between these periods, the remains of the mushroom legs should be removed. Loop the bags. Noticed mold - take them out of the room. Such a substrate will fit on the site as an organic fertilizer. Growing oyster mushrooms in the basement is easy, especially if you prepare well for the process.

    Growing oyster mushrooms at home from scratch: how to make mycelium

    The oyster mushroom spawn, as already mentioned, is relatively inexpensive. However, if you wish, you can save money and not buy mycelium, but make it yourself. For the preparation of mycelium in this case will need:

    1.5 l plastic bottle neck,

    winter whole wheat - 1 kg.

    For growing mycelium, the pan is filled almost completely with grain. Then water is poured into it in such a way that it covers the wheat for about 1.5-2 cm. They put the pan on the fire and boil the grain after boiling for 5 minutes.

    Before planting the mycelium, the wheat is cooled to room temperature. So that the mycelium does not become infected with mold later, wipe the bowl with alcohol and pour a small part of the grain into it. Powdered wheat gypsum and chalk. Again, put in a bowl of grain. Again it is sprinkled with chalk and plaster. Thus consume all the wheat and mineral supplements.

    At the next stage, rub hands with alcohol and thoroughly mix the grain with plaster and chalk. Add to the mixture pieces of oyster mushroom. Then pour grain with mushrooms in a plastic bag.

    In order not to infect the workpiece with mold, process the neck of the bottle with alcohol and clog a hole with a thread with cotton wool (not too tight). Vata is also pre-moistened with alcohol. Install the neck in the bag (wide up, like a funnel) and tie it with tape. This procedure is necessary so that the mycelium can breathe.

    Put the package in a dark place, for example, in a closet in a room with an air temperature of 22-25 ° C. Ready mycelium, suitable for the cultivation of oyster mushrooms, will be approximately two weeks.

    The method described above for making a mycelium is the simplest. In some cases, it may fail. Mycelium with a certain probability may simply become moldy. Those summer residents who do not want to risk should use more sophisticated technologies, for example, with preliminary disinfection of the substrate with liquid nitrogen.

    Growing oyster mushrooms in the garden

    To begin, let us tell you how to properly grow oyster mushrooms on the street in a natural environment. This method is suitable for owners of summer cottages and houses in the village. To organize a mushroom enterprise, select a piece of land in the shaded and damp places of a garden or vegetable garden: behind a bath, shed, garage or other buildings.

    Growing materials

    The following objects are used to inoculate oyster mushroom mycelium:

    • pieces of sawed tree trunks,
    • shavings and large fractional sawdust hardwood,
    • hay and straw
    • sunflower husk,
    • dry stalks of plants, the same sunflower or corn.


    The above substrates and objects are used for the cultivation of fungi in the basement and in natural conditions. But on the site it is better to use solid wood. After all, it will provide an opportunity to collect oyster mushrooms 4-5 years old with a one-time landing on stumps.

    For growing oyster mushrooms use deciduous trees. At the same time, understand the following: soft wood is infected more quickly with spores, and the return from it is lower, with hardwoods - on the contrary: both the crop is higher and the plot for a couple of years longer.

    As a material for inoculation of mushroom spores, use:

    Oyster Cultivation Technology

    Infection of wood material with fungal spores is carried out in the spring after the threat of recurrent frosts has passed.

    Here is how the process looks step by step:

    1. We cut a tree into lengths of 40-60 centimeters.
    2. Soak hemp in water. Freshly sawed pieces for a day, dry - for three or four days.
    3. In the future installation site pre-remove the sod layer.
    4. We install the prepared pieces of wood with an interval between the posts of at least 20-30 centimeters. We drill in hemp holes with a diameter of half a centimeter. We arrange them in increments of 10 centimeters in height and diameter in a checkerboard pattern.
    5. Lay in the prepared holes of the mycelium.
    6. Part of the mycelium is placed on top of the hemp.
    7. We cork the holes with sawdust, and on the top of the posts we place a cut of a tree 2-3 cm thick.
    8. We plentifully water a plantation.
    9. We cover the prepared plot. We use burlap, nonwoven, old towels, bedspreads and similar rags as covering materials.

    Inoculation takes place within 30-45 days depending on weather conditions. A signal to the fact that the process is successful - the appearance of white plaque near the places where mycelium is laid. It appears on the surface areas of the oyster mushroom spawn.

    The first fruit bodies on the stumps are formed closer to autumn: in late August or early September. The waves of the first year are low-yielding: the mycelium does not have time to grow in the volume of the tree provided.

    The maximum yield in the open ground falls on the second and third year of the growing season. In the future, as wood declines, the fungi yield decreases, and in the fifth or sixth year it disappears altogether - the stump is eaten up by one hundred percent by oyster mushrooms. The wood remains are sent to the compost pile or directly to the garden beds.

    Oyster Cultivation Business Model

    For sale oyster mushrooms are grown in a room with year-round positive temperatures. The cost of equipment kind of "greenhouse" for mushrooms is the main costly item in the enterprise. But once prepared place brings income constantly, if you comply with the requirements of the process.

    Requirements for the room

    Although oyster mushrooms are unpretentious to growing conditions, as the material on vegetation in the natural environment has vividly proved, the following conditions must be met to obtain stable yields in a cellar or other room:

    • positive temperature
    • high humidity
    • purity,
    • absence of pathogenic flora and fauna,
    • equipped shelving or hanging structures.

    Stable room temperature is provided by electric heaters. The fact is that the processes of inoculation and vegetation take place in different climatic regimes, therefore the creation of such conditions is important.

    Humidity in the cultivation of oyster mushrooms, 85-90 percent, is regulated by the supply and exhaust ventilation. For additional safety apply:

    • to reduce dampness - fans,
    • increase - sprayers.

    Clean oyster cultivation - as in the operating room. This is especially true for spore infection of the woody substrate mycelium. Sterility will also kill pathogens.

    Располагать пакеты с субстратом желательно на специально оборудованных стеллажах или подвесах. Их количество и расположение зависит от характера помещения. Мешки подвешивают к потолку, ставят на полки или деревянные полы – во всяком случае, необходим свободный доступ персонала для обслуживания плантации.

    Применяемый субстрат

    Modern industry has taken care of the growers and offers them ready-made bags of substrate. The capacity of plastic bags for growing is available in 5, 10 or 20 liters. The choice of volume depends on the size and equipment of the room. Experienced mushroom growers are advised to start with small volumes that are easier to control.

    The substrate in the bags and prepare their own. To do this, use waste wood and crop production. In any case, prior to inoculation, the material is thermally treated to protect against pathogenic microorganisms.

    Apply three processing methods:

    • hydrothermal - hot water treatment,
    • steam pasteurization - the moistened substrate is blown by hot air,
    • xerothermic - steam blowing of the dry mixture.

    At home, hot steam causes problems, so the first method is considered acceptable. For this, the substrate is placed in water and boiled for an hour and a half. After that, boiling water is drained and the material is left to dry for two or three days under pressure to remove excess moisture.

    Mycelium selection

    When purchasing mycelium, pay attention to the shelf life and varietal characteristics of mushrooms. Carefully read the manufacturer's information. High-quality product of yellow or orange color without black impregnations. An alarm signal is ammonia smell, which speaks of irreversible processes of decay. Store grain mycelium is recommended in the basement or in a refrigerator at a temperature of 2-4 degrees Celsius.

    Temporary temperature rise to a level of 20 degrees is allowed. Usually this condition occurs when transporting mycelium. The total shelf life of the product, subject to the requirements, lasts up to nine months.

    Before the inoculation of the substrate, the grain mycelium is removed from the refrigerator and left for a day at room temperature.

    Inoculation

    Before an important process of inoculation, the room is disinfected. First, all washed thoroughly, and then rubbed with a solution of bleach. The ventilation ducts are closed at the time of treatment.

    Then the substrate is infected with mycelium in the amount of 1-3 percent of the volume of wood residues. Accurate data are provided by manufacturers and printed on the packaging.

    The components are mixed on the prepared disinfected surface, desktop. The finished mixture is decomposed into prepared bags or bags of the selected volume.

    At the end of the inoculation stage of preparation, the bags with the substrate are installed in the incubation room. From the side of the passages, oblique five-centimeter cuts are made in them, from which fruit bodies will later appear.

    The incubation temperature is kept at 25 degrees Celsius and should not fluctuate more than two degrees in one direction or another. An important condition is the increased humidity of air, therefore during this stage the room is not aired.

    Cultivation

    After three or four weeks, the first fruit bodies will appear on the surface of the bags, which means that the time has come for cultivation. To do this, the temperature in the room is reduced to a level of 10-20 degrees, and the humidity is up to 85-90 percent - spraying with warm water is used for this twice a day.

    At the same time mushrooms should be lit. Light is not required much - about 5 watts per square meter (for a basement with an area of ​​20 squares, there are enough light bulbs with a total capacity of 100 watts).

    Mushrooms are harvested in about 40-50 days, and the waves are replaced in two or three weeks. Fruiting lasts six to seven months. Just as when growing under natural conditions in the open air, the first two waves of oyster mushrooms are most fruitful, and in the future the yield of mushrooms decreases.

    The mushrooms of each wave should be cut at the root, after which the substrate is sorted and returned to further cultivation. If mold is found, the bag is removed from the room, and the contents are disposed of in a compost heap.

    The choice of premises and the preparation of the substrate

    For the cultivation of oyster mushrooms, it is necessary to equip a non-residential place in advance. Basements, garages (in which there are no cars), cellars, sheds or specially equipped rooms are perfectly suitable for these purposes. Before starting any preparatory work, it is necessary to disinfect the place where we will grow oyster mushrooms.

    A solution of lime (4%) copes well with this. Floor, walls, ceiling - all available surfaces must be thoroughly disinfected, then the room should be closed for a couple of days. After the specified time it is necessary to open the doors wide open and thoroughly ventilate this place until the complete disappearance of the smell of lime.

    Home cultivation technology involves choosing the most appropriate material for this purpose. The substrate creates optimal conditions for growth: it can be wood chips, corn stalks, buckwheat husks or sunflower, stalks of cereals. Large fragments of the substrate, on which we will grow oyster mushrooms, should be finely chopped.

    Any material you choose needs processing - pasteurization:

    1. Fill the substrate with warm water, not hot +23 .. + 25 ° С, holding time - 20-30 minutes. At the same time stir the mixture in the tank, as if washing it from contamination.
    2. Drain the dirty water, squeeze the material and re-fill it with hotter water (+80 .. + 90 ° C) and press it down with a heavy object (under pressure). We leave the substrate so for 6-7 hours, after which the water is drained and finally squeezed.
    3. To increase the productivity of the material and the subsequent fruiting, it is necessary to nourish the substrate with active elements. Superphosphate, gypsum, limestone and urea are taken in a proportion of 0.5%: 2%: 2%: 0.5%.
    4. During the "fertilization" of the substrate with additives, its moisture content should be about 70% - this will allow chemical elements to linger inside the mixture, not to leak out with water.

    After the room has been prepared and disinfected, and the substrate has been pasteurized, it is then the turn of laying the mycelium into the mixture. Mycelium oyster can buy in mycological laboratory. Among the extensive selection of commercial varieties of mushrooms, you can choose the product of the best quality. Specialized online stores are also at your service.

    Calculate volumes in advance - you will need 200-250 g of oyster mushroom mycelium (if it is of imported origin) for sowing a 10-kilogram block or 100 g more if the raw material is domestic.

    How to grow oyster mushrooms at home step by step

    Mycelium is added to the substrate at the rate of 300-500 g per 10 kg of the mixture. At the same time, it is necessary to ensure that the temperature of the material at the time of adding the mycelium does not exceed + 30 ° C (so as not to ruin the raw material).

    This is followed by the preparation of bags for laying oyster mushrooms and mycelium. For these purposes it is very convenient to use dense plastic bags and bags. Sizes 40 × 60 cm and 50 × 100 cm are the most optimal. The resulting composition is laid out in bags and carefully twirl them, while the inside should not be air.

    We make holes in the blocks with a knife. The incisions should be placed arbitrarily - at a distance of 10-15 cm from one another. After the manipulations are done, the bags are stacked on each other (2-4 pieces each) or suspended on special hooks, pre-installed in the ceiling or walls. There must be a distance between the bags to ensure comfortable air circulation.

    It is also very convenient to use special wooden stakes on a sustainable basis - the blocks with the substrate are simply strung on them in several pieces.

    Cultivation of oyster mushrooms in bags provides for maintaining a certain temperature and light conditions. Thus, for full germination mushrooms need a temperature level of about +18 .. + 24 ° C along with high humidity (90-95%).

    Sometimes for additional moistening between the rows of bags they place buckets with water, and the necessary air exchange is maintained with the help of fans. Ventilation is important in this case - the excessive release of carbon dioxide inhibits the growth of oyster mushroom. Light during the incubation period is not needed. Make sure that flies do not penetrate into the room at all stages of growing and fruiting.

    Growing oyster mushrooms at home includes an incubation period of approximately 14-17 days.

    In the first days, the temperature inside the blocks rises, make sure that it does not exceed the level of + 30 ° C. If the temperature is about to reach a critical point, direct the fan to the side of the bags. As mentioned above, this indicator (elevated temperature) is detrimental to the mycelium. After the incubation period, the blocks are covered with white bloom - oyster mushroom spawn begin to germinate.

    Growing at this stage involves maintaining certain indoor conditions:

    • air humidity - not less than 80%, and better to 90-95%,
    • air temperature at +12 .. + 17 ° С,
    • required 8-hour lighting - 100-170 suites (as on an overcast day), ordinary daytime lamps will do,
    • frequent airing.

    You can maintain moisture by irrigating the walls and the floor of the spray gun, but at the same time water should not fall on the blocks. This period of fruiting lasts about 2 weeks, by the end of the cap of oyster mushrooms become quite large.

    It is time to harvest. You do not need to cut the mycelium with a knife, but carefully twist them out of the bag with the substrate. After the first removal of oyster mushroom, you should thoroughly ventilate the room and expect a second round of fruiting.

    The first harvest is the largest, the second is slightly smaller, the third is less than the second — that is, the yield waves follow each other as they decrease.

    The rest period between the "waves" is 8-10 days, and the "waves" themselves can be 4 or even 6.

    The substrate, which has already served its time, becomes an excellent fertilizer for suburban areas.

    How to grow oyster mushrooms at home on stumps

    An excellent option for owners of cottages is the method of growing oyster mushrooms on stumps - this method does not require excessive effort. For these purposes it is better to choose freshly chopped hemp, but it is also possible to prepare it in advance. They need to be placed in shady places where there is no access to sunlight, for example, under spreading crowns of trees or under vineyards.

    Stumps should be soaked in water and kept for about 3-4 days, older specimens - a week. Then, using a drill (20-25 mm), you need to drill 8-10 holes 7-10 cm deep. These grooves are then filled with oyster mushroom mycelium, the top is smeared with clay or plugged with moss.

    The stumps must be constantly wet, for this they can be covered with food film and placed in the basement for a month and a half. When the stumps are overgrown with mycelium (seemingly something like a white film) they can be taken out into the air, placed in shady places.

    Studying the possibilities and options for ways to grow the oyster mushroom at home, it should be recognized that this method does not require excessive efforts and is ideally suited to the owners of dachas.

    Important information - a prerequisite is the use of respirators and protective masks when working with mycelium, as well as during fruiting! When entering the respiratory tract spores of fungi can cause serious harm to your health.

    In this case, you will need the desire and patience. Mushrooming is a truly exciting and productive activity. The topic of how to grow oyster mushrooms at home, is finding more and more fans among summer residents and enthusiastic gardeners. In addition to the presence on the dining table of this tasty and rich in useful elements of the product, it is an interesting and profitable business. Try it and you grow the oyster mushroom at home - a rich harvest for six months will surely please you.

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