The potato digger in the most general case works on a simple principle: the teeth of the working part penetrate the soil and dump the tubers onto the soil surface. After that, the potatoes must be harvested by hand. But even such partial mechanization saves labor and speeds up the process of harvesting. Equipment is usually hung on the walker, fixing either directly on it, or through a coupling. The average productivity of potato diggers is several times higher than the manual work. With the help of potato diggers it is quite possible to collect also beets, onions and even garlic.
Usually potato diggers are divided into three independent types: universal, vibration, conveyor.
Potato harvester universal type
The first type looks like a shovel without a cutting, equipped with sharp teeth at the top. When working, the sharp part of the working body bites into the soil, lifting its top layer along with the fruits of potatoes. Tubers and earth are on the teeth, then the soil is poured out, and the potatoes come off the teeth and fit to the surface.
The system is equipped with a sturdy, durable share and ejector. This technique copes with the work on the ground light and moderate. The standard width of the universal potato digger is 200 mm, the depth of penetration into the ground is 150 mm.
The effectiveness of the device is relatively low, such a potato digger is able to raise to the surface up to 85% of the crop. The advantage can be considered low cost.
A typical representative of this potato family is: KV-1.
Vibration type potato digger
The second type of devices is more efficient, although structurally they are more complicated. Such potato-shovels are called vibration (roar). They are equipped with plowshares and sifter grids placed on the wheels. When the walker passes through the field, the ploughshare plunges into the soil and transfers the earth and tubers to the trellis. Getting on the vibrating table, the potato is sifted and falls on the other side of the device, and the earth goes through the cracks. After mechanical sifting, the tubers fall on the surface from where they must be harvested by hand. Support wheels allow you to adjust the depth of penetration into the soil.
In this series of potato diggers, the KKM-1, Poltavchanka and KVM-3 models are considered leaders. Their efficiency reaches 90%.
The depth of penetration into the soil here is 150-200 mm, the width of the grip is up to 400 mm. The equipment is sensitive to a specific type of motoblock, so it should be selected taking into account the performance characteristics of this technique.
The standard vibration installation for digging potatoes includes:
- sturdy frame
- support unit (wheels, chains, discs, bearings),
- shafts that provide the effect of vibration,
- filter grid
- plowshare (plow).
Transporter potato digger
Sometimes it is classified as a vibratory type, but more often it is classified as a separate category. In such devices for the excavation of potatoes used conveyor belt. On the tape, the fruits of potatoes are cleaned of soil particles, protected from damage. The use of tape can improve the quality of dropping the soil. The width of the grabbing tape potato reaches half a meter or more. Most models of such potato diggers are constructively compatible with the most popular walk-behind tillers. The price of such equipment is higher than that of other types.
Recommendations for choosing a potato digger
When purchasing a potato digger, consider the size of the plot and the type of soil. For processing large areas, one should prefer double-row potato diggers. In one pass, such a device forms two rows. Convenient potato diggers, which provide the ability to install a pulley on both the right and left side. On solid varieties of soil, models of devices equipped with an active vibrating knife have proven themselves well.
If the harvest is to be on solid ground, you need to choose equipment more durable and reliable, designed for serious loads. In order to improve the quality of work on harvesting, it is recommended in any case, before digging up potatoes using a tiller equipped with a potato trowel, to remove weeds and tops from the field.
The potato digger for a mini-tractor is designed for processing plots of land of 50 hectare. In smaller areas to use this technique and attachments becomes unprofitable.
The cost of fuel and maintenance do not justify the profit. It is better to use a more economical walker. With the help of potato canopies, it is possible to significantly reduce harvest time and minimize damage to tubers.
The principle of operation of the equipment is quite simple: cutting elements open the soil, pulling tubers to the surface. Potatoes, rising from the ground, are cleared of soil residues and sent to a special bunker for subsequent transportation to the storage site.
Or fit into rolls right on the field. It should be noted that this type of attachments is made by domestic and foreign companies. Regardless of the manufacturer, the units are adapted to work in different climatic conditions.
The design does not contain complex elements, so the replacement of worn parts or repairs, can be carried out in the field, without interrupting production and attract third-party specialists.
To use the potato digger showed maximum performance, the field should be sown in even rows. This is impossible to achieve without mechanized planting of tubers.
The average speed when cleaning the field with a potato trowel is about 5 km / h. The width of the row spacing and nominal capacity depends on the modification of the equipment and the technical capabilities of the tractor.
All potato diggers on the agricultural equipment market differ in processing width and design features. The four-row models are considered the most powerful and productive.
This equipment can process four rows of tubers in one pass. Such models are usually aggregated with heavy tractors and are used in large farms.
In farms and for work on personal plots more compact equipment is used. Consider the popular models.
- Potato harvester single. This equipment processes only one bed per pass. Such models are called conveyor. After being removed from the ground, the tubers move into a receiving bunker along a conveyor belt, simultaneously clearing away any residual soil.
- Double row models. The units are almost completely identical to the previous version. The only difference is in the processing width - two beds are covered in one pass.
- Thundering. These modifications are suitable for mini-tractors with a capacity of 12 to 25 liters. with. Width of coverage reaches 500 mm. Such equipment sends the tubers to the vibrating grid, where the process of cleaning from the ground. Equipment productivity is about 0.30 hectares / hour.
Among the farmers, the T 25 “Vladimirets” tractor is very popular, let's see which potato digger is suitable for it. Given that the technique is quite powerful (16-25 hp), the tractor can use all the varieties of potato cleaners listed above.
However, farmers claim that the optimal potato digger for the T 25 is a single-row model. This equipment has a three-segment plowshare, which opens the ground to a depth of 30 cm.
The conveyor belt is covered with a protective sheath, which reduces the risk of damage to tubers, and lateral protection is provided, made in the form of rubber linings.
Harvest is usually sent to the aisle. The own running gear of the potato digger helps to reduce the load on the rear hitch of the tractor.
Do-it-yourself cultivator product
The lancet type potato digger is a simple attachment for a cultivator on a walk-behind tractor. To make it you do not need to look for specialized materials, and you do not need to draw the drawings either.
You will need:
- Bipod Carved from an old shovel.
- The rods. Apply reinforcement or use teeth from forks.
A good owner, even the old tools that are out of order, get a second life.
Connect the cultivator and motoblock. Movable nodes in the design are missing. Breakage excluded. Is that poor-quality welding can make itself felt.
Note! Self-made device may cause injury. Therefore, you should securely fasten the nodes. Pay special attention to moving parts. Take care when operating!
To make a homemade potato chopper for the motoblock come true:
- A little material that is in every village.
- Skillful hands.
- A little patience.
There are drawings, which means the result will not take long. Digging potatoes with a mechanical device will be easier with your digger.