There is a biological law: pollinating insects attract the most powerful and viable plants, and insect pests attract weakened, oppressed plants. In adverse conditions, plants weaken, and then they are attacked by pests that are always nearby.
During deep digging of soil in autumn, some pests are extracted to the surface and die from frost, rain, or are eaten by birds and destroyed mechanically, and many of the laid eggs, larvae or spores, falling into deeper soil layers, die. Due to the deep loosening, when a significant part of the wireworms are in the upper soil layer, the work of predatory ground beetles and their larvae, which destroy the pest by more than 40%, is activated. Carrying out this operation in mid-August also destroys a large number of perennial (5 times more than in mid-September) and one-year (15 times) weeds. It is important to remember that with strong debris, especially perennial weeds, the treatment is carried out to a depth of 8-10 cm, whereas with a weak one - only by 5 - 6 cm. Thus, the number of foci multiply pests and diseases.
Proper fertilization and dressing, loosening and irrigation contribute to the intensive growth of plants, enhancing their livelihoods and defense mechanisms, which prevents them from being affected by diseases and colonization by pests. If, prior to the appearance of aphids, to conduct foliar potash or phosphorus-potash fertilizing of cabbage or other vegetable crops, it is possible at the very beginning to reduce the number of pests by a factor of 5-6 and at the same time save the life of the ladybird, and then only one will be needed instead of three) its individual per 1 m2.
♦ In the late autumn, in order to fight the pupae and flying out butterflies of the currant moth, it is necessary to hilling the bushes to a height of 10 cm by the soil taken from the row spacing, and in the spring, after flowering, unravel the berries.
♦ One of the most common mechanical methods of combat is the manual collection of sedentary insects (caterpillars, beetles and their larvae). Many small insects can be caught using an ordinary vacuum cleaner, replacing a dense filter in it with a net or gauze. To catch cruciferous and other flea beetles, a sheet of plywood, cardboard or thick matter is smeared with a sticky substance and dragged several times over the damaged plants, the sticking beetles are destroyed.
♦ Night butterflies are caught by a light trap. Make it easy if there is a light source. To do this, put a cup under a lamp with fermenting syrup, jam, kerosene emulsion or a weak solution of a fast-acting pesticide. Insects that flew into the world hit the lantern and enter the liquid, where they die.
For traps, you can use insect-attracting odors. For example, in the summer for cabbage whiteflies or moths butterflies lay out fresh cabbage leaves in boxes. Insects lay eggs that are easy to destroy. To scare away butterflies, cabbage is simply sprayed with a decoction or infusion of leaves and flowers with a strong smell (jasmine, spruce, acacia, lilac, pine).
♦ To combat insect pests instead of chemical agents, it is desirable to use herbal infusions and decoctions. It is best to collect the above-ground parts of the necessary plants in the phases of onset or full bloom, and the tubers, bulbs, rhizomes - in early spring or late autumn. They should be dried under a canopy in the shade of a draft.
It must be remembered that the decoctions and infusions of some herbs are not harmless, so they need to be prepared strictly according to the recipe, and when working, be sure to observe precautions. For cooking, you must have a special dish, which then in no case can not be used for cooking. Leftovers and husks after preparation of solutions and infusions should be buried in the ground. Plants populated with pests are treated 2–3 times per season, 4–5 times if absolutely necessary. They are sprayed in the evening hours, since in the sunlight most solutions lose their toxic properties. Spraying should stop at least 20 - 30 days before harvest.
♦ 180 - 200 g of minced garlic in a meat grinder or mortar to insist day in 10 liters of water. Before spraying, strain (against glue, suckers, small caterpillars and spider mites).
♦ Potatoes are much better stored if they are treated with antimicrobial agents. To combat rot, it is effective to pour the tubers with pounded or crushed garlic (100 g per 100 kg of potatoes) or chopped leaves of mountain ash (300 g per 100 kg) or spray with tincture of onions or Rowan leaves (50 g of crushed leaves per 1 l of water - 1, 5 cups tincture per 100 kg of potatoes).
♦ When plants are damaged by spider mites, aphids and other pests, good results are obtained by injecting dandelion, tomato or potato tops, and pepper infusions. The infusion is prepared from 400 g of fresh dandelion leaves or 200 - 300 g of crushed roots, infused in 10 l of water (+25 ° C) for 2 hours, then filtered and added 1 tsp. diluted soap, pepper, mustard.
♦ Fight with aphids will help infusion of leaves of tomato or potato tops: 500 - 600 g of leaves or stepsons skip through a meat grinder, pour with warm water (+30 - 31 ° C), insist 3 hours, then filter, add 1 tsp. ammonium nitrate, 1 tbsp. l pepper and 1 tsp. soap. Spray this solution of the plant every 7 - 10 days, and not once, as many do.
♦ Can be used to kill aphids and onions. Bulbs are passed through a meat grinder, 1 cup of the resulting mass is diluted in 10 liters of water, add 1 tbsp. l soda ash and this solution spray the damaged plants. The last spraying should be carried out no later than 20 - 25 days before the removal of the fruit (in the stage of development of 2 - 4 leaves). Make sure that the solution is wetted the whole plant - leaves, stems.
♦ To combat aphids, you can use a decoction of yarrow and wormwood. To make it, they take a handful of dry yarrow and a branch of wormwood, pour boiling water and boil for 7–10 minutes, cool and insist 2-3 hours. The resulting solution is sprayed on the plants.
♦ Against leaf-eating caterpillars, aphids, spider mites - 150 - 200 g of onion peel insist in 10 liters of water for 3 to 4 days. Strain before use.
♦ Against leaf-eating caterpillars and aphids - 150 - 200 g of onion peel, 200 g of milled onions, 200 g of tobacco boil 2 hours in 10 l of water. Cool the broth and add 10 liters of water. Add 30 g of soap before spraying.
♦ Against the pinwort - 150-200 g of tobacco dust pour hot water, stir and insist day. Then strain and dilute to 10 liters.
♦ Against aphids, suckers, leaf-eating caterpillars - pour one part of tobacco, tobacco or tobacco dust into ten parts of water and insist for 24 hours. Then the infusion is diluted 2 - 3 times with water with the addition of soap.
♦ Against ticks, aphids — 200 g dry tomato tops, 200 g peeled onions, garlic, 200 g dry wormwood, a shag pack and 2 pods of chopped hot pepper, cover with water and boil for 15 to 20 minutes. Cool, strain. 2 liters of infusion diluted in 10 liters of water.
♦ For the destruction of aphids apply infusions and decoctions of dandelion, yarrow, tobacco, horse sorrel, marigolds, tops of potatoes and tomatoes. Spraying should be carried out at the first appearance of signs of damage. Sprayed in the evening and in quiet weather. When processing, it is important that the aphid accumulation sites are well wetted: young shoots and especially the lower side of the leaf where the aphids are located.
Processing should not be carried out during flowering plants. If necessary, infusions and decoctions of plants during the summer can be processed up to 3-4 times with an interval of 7-15 days. The deadline for processing is 5 days before harvest.
♦ Against small caterpillars and larvae of aphids, suckers - 100 g of fresh chopped pods of hot pepper boil in 1 liter of water over low heat for an hour. Cool, pour into a glass dish and insist for two days. For spraying on 10 liters of water, take 50 g of broth.
♦ Against aphids, henchmen - 2 kg of needles of one-year growth of pine or spruce, pour 8 liters of river or rainwater and insist 5-7 days in the shade, stirring daily. For spraying, take 1 liter of infusion per 10 liters of water.
♦ Against fire rape, aphids, red apple mite - 100 g of dry mustard pour 10 liters of hot water, leave for 2 days, dilute with cold water (1: 1) and thin out. Or 60 g of dry mustard brew in 1 liter of water, insist for three days in a sealed container. For spraying infusion diluted in 20 liters of water.
♦ Against aphids, spider mites - 1.2 kg of green tops of potatoes or 600-800 g of dried tops insist for 3 to 4 hours in 10 liters of warm water. Infusion strain, add 40 g of soap and spray them with fruit trees. Excess doses of tops can cause burns on tree leaves.
♦ Against the plant's moth, fire, leaf-eating pests - 4 kg of green tops of tomatoes should be covered with water and boiled over low heat for 30 minutes. Before spraying, dilute the solution with three parts of water.
♦ Against aphids, caterpillars of the apple moth and other leaf-eating foods - 800 g of dry yarrow, steam in boiling water for 30 - 40 minutes, add water to 10 liters and leave for 1.5 - 2 days. For broth dry mass pour water and boil for 30 minutes.
♦ Against leaf-eating caterpillars - 1 kg of dried mass of bitter wormwood boil for 10 - 15 minutes in a small amount of water, cool, strain and add water up to 10 liters.
♦ Against aphids - cut 3 large celandine plants under the root and chop them. Pour a bucket of cold water and insist 3 hours. Pour into a deep bowl and carefully dip the tops of the branches on which the aphid has settled. Especially good effect is obtained on currants.
♦ Infusion of burdock destroys the tracks of the whiteflies, scoop. It is prepared from finely chopped leaves, which are placed in a dish, filling it in half. Then poured to the brim with water, insist for three days and after filtering the plants are sprayed.
♦ Against the onion nematode and thrips - before planting, you can soak the onion in salted water (2 tablespoons salt for 5 liters of water) for a day and then rinse in a solution of potassium permanganate.
♦ Good support in the fight against pests and diseases of the garden is wood ash. If leaves begin to curl on young shoots of gooseberries and currants, they need to be unfolded and sprinkled inside the ash. Putting it in a dry form of 300 g under each bush with a uniform distribution and mixing with the soil increases the resistance to powdery mildew. With the same purpose, during the ripening of berries, bushes can be pollinated with ashes at the rate of 10-15 g per bush. If necessary, dusting can be repeated 2-3 times, but at the same time reduce the amount of ash to 5-7 g per shrub.
♦ Against the powdery mildew on the currant, gooseberry, cucumber and against the cherry mucous sawfly, spraying the plants with such a solution is useful: boil 300 g of sifted ash for half an hour, strain the solution and dilute with water to 10 liters. To improve sticking add 40 g of any soap. Processing can be carried out twice a month and preferably in the evening in calm weather.
♦ With a small number of aphids, you can dust the plants with sifted ash from a gauze bag. Plants are pre-sprayed with plain water to make the ash better adhere to the leaves.
♦ Powdery mildew on the gooseberry and currant can also be controlled by the microbiological method: pour the third part of the mullein (or rotted hay) bucket with three liters of water, after three days, dilute it with water three times, strain and sprinkle the plants. If there is no mullein, you can take 1 liter of whey, skim milk or buttermilk, dilute 9 liters of water and sprinkle. Bacteria that develop in manure destroy the mycelium of the pathogen.
♦ A good effect in combating powdery mildew is sprayed with soda ash and soap (50 g soda and 50 g soap per 10 liters of water). To prepare the Solution, dilute the soap in soft water and add soda, previously dissolved in a small amount of water.
♦ In the fight with the flaps, a soap-kerosene emulsion is used: 40 g of Soap is dissolved in 10 liters of water and 10 drops of kerosene are added. The emulsion washed branches and stems of plants twice with an interval of 8-10 days.
♦ You can try to wash pests from fruit trees and shrubs with a strong stream of cold water.
♦ In the fight against aphids, you can use the following solutions: 2 tbsp. l ammonia in a bucket of water, add 1 tsp. shampoo (washing powder) or 10 liters of water 20 g of superphosphate and 10 g of potassium chloride. Spray leaves from below with an interval of 6 - 7 days.
♦ In the fight against carrot fly, a good effect is given by twice watering with the infusion of onion peel: the first time is immediately after weeding in June, the second time after weeding in late July - early August. For this, one third of the bucket of the husk is poured with boiling water (up to a full bucket). When the infusion has cooled, they water the beds and spread the onion peel taken between the rows to make it. The smell of onions scares away the fly.
♦ For the same purpose, you can use a mixture of tobacco dust and dry sand in a ratio of 1: 1, wood ash, dry peat, as well as pine and spruce needles, rotated through a meat grinder. They are sprinkled on the soil along the rows during fly laying eggs 2 - 3 times per season.
♦ Against the larvae of the onion fly, watering the plants with a solution of sodium chloride (1 cup per 10 liters of water) is effective. The first watering is carried out when the feather reaches 5 cm in length and is repeated every 20 days.
♦ To combat the caterpillars and larvae, you can prepare a solution of aconite (blue fighter): 1 part of the plant in 6 parts of water. Insist day. The resulting composition is diluted with water 1: 5. You can use the solution hemlock: chop the stems, leaves and inflorescences and pour water 10: 5. Let it brew for 1 hour. The composition is wrung out. After 2 hours, press again. The resulting liquids mix and spray the trees.
♦ The moth does not tolerate the smell of wormwood. A decoction of wormwood for spraying: chop the grass, fill it with half of any container, pour water and let it boil for 30 minutes. The solution should insist day. Broth filter, diluted with water 1: 2.
♦ To scare and disorientation of the Colorado potato beetles, you can sprinkle the plants with a daily infusion of wormwood, fresh walnut leaves, roots of elecampane, raisins, celandine, tansy, and dandelion decoction, fruits of hot pepper, horsetail, poplar leaves. In small areas, manual harvesting is advisable, followed by destruction of beetles, egg-laying and larvae. On hot days, when the plants lose their turgor and become privyhshih, you can carefully collect the larvae of the Colorado potato beetle from the net net bushes, which is intended for catching butterflies.
Food table salt
Salt can be used to get rid of the codling moth and the Californian scale insect. To do this, simply dissolve 1 kg of the product in a bucket of water. Liquid sprayed fruit, berry trees and shrubs. A suitable time for the event - in the spring (before bud break) or in the fall (when leaf fall ends).
The strong smell of tobacco does not like very many harmful insects, among which are:
- cruciferous flea,
- peppered moth
- spider mite
The minimum that can be done is to dust the green plants with odorous tobacco dust. The optimal dosage is 45 g of product for every 10 square meters. m. landings.
This method of processing is used in many colors: iris, dahlia, peony and delphinium. They are powdered before and after flowering. Also, this method is used for cabbage.
You can also scatter straw under the trees, put tobacco dust on top of it and burn it all together. Fumigation may be needed fruit crops, if they are strongly affected by aphids or sucker.
To prepare the infusion for gooseberries, currants and fruit trees, you need 250 g of tobacco dust pour 5 liters of warm water. After 24 hours, strain the product, divide it in two and add 40 g of soap to the bucket.
Onion and Onion Husk
Against ants, aphids, suckers guaranteed to help infusion of 275 g of crushed (not purified from the husk) onions and a bucket of water, aged for 1-2 days, which is filtered and then used.
If you need to get rid of spider mites, you should apply this recipe:
- heat 5 l of water somewhere to 65 ° C and throw 200 g of husk,
- a day should be diluted infusion of the same amount of water and strain.
Before the usual mustard powder will not resist a number of pests: cabbage and carrot flies, suckling, mites, naked slugs, aphids, moth. When dry, they can be sprinkled with holes prepared for planting cabbage seedlings and the ground around it. For spraying, a preparation is prepared of 10 g of the product and 1 l of water, which must be kept for 48 hours, and then diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 5.
Against the scoops and cabbage whitefish, crops can be sprayed in 2 periods: when butterflies fly and caterpillars leave eggs.
Эффективным распространенный сорняк – лопух. To prepare an agent based on it, it is necessary to half fill the bucket with crushed leaves, pour water to the top and hold for 3 days.
The gooseberry and currant bushes will not be threatened by a firestrow if, on the days when its caterpillars come out, use the following steps from the stepson to sprinkle the crops:
- 3.5 kg of raw material pour a bucket of water and boil for 30 minutes,
- dilute the water decoction in proportions 1: 5,
- Before use, add 40 g of soap to each bucket.
A true remedy for cruciferous flea spraying is sprouting cabbage and radish with a solution of 2 liters of water and 30 ml of acetic essence.
And apple cider vinegar, fermented for 3-4 days, helps against the codling moth. Before use, it only needs to be diluted in the amount of 100 ml in 1.5 liters of water, poured into cans and hang containers on tree branches at a height of 1.5-2 m from the ground.
Laundry soap against aphids has not only all known cosmetic propertiesbut the ability to destroy all kinds of aphids.
Simple enough sprinkle bushes affected by aphids with a solution of soap (200 g per 10 liters of water).
For ease of implementation just scrape it into small pieces and waituntil they dissolve in water. You can also use it for prevention.
Another advantage of the use of household soap from aphids is complete harmlessness of the product for humans.
Green soap from aphids is widely used in gardening. In addition to protecting trees and preventing plant diseases green soap effectively helps to get rid or prevent the appearance of sucking, namely aphids.
How to prepare a soap solution for aphids? You can prepare a solution at the rate of 200-300 grams per 10 liters of water or make a mixture using 20 grams of mustard powder, 200 grams of green soap and 9 liters of water. While stirring the prepared solution, pour copper sulfate into it (20 g per 1 l).
Experts advise process plants during their active growth no more than 3 times per season. Soap aphid solution is an excellent pest control method.
Wood ash is not only a universal fertilizer, but also a good cure for aphids. This uses ash solution. For it is necessary to boil 300 g of sifted ash within 25 minutes, then strain and pour 10 liters of water.
When the apple aphid appears on your trees you can "powder" leavesAfter pre-wetting them for better adhesion.
Following the opinion of experts ash from aphids is also the best way for the prevention of the appearance of aphids.
Ash contains a large percentage of potassiumtherefore, adding it to the soil and increasing the ratios of potassium, you automatically eliminate the excess of nitrogen, which is one of the main causes of aphids. The required dose for an adult tree is 5 kg per year. Aphid ash will be an effective method to kill insects.
For the solution you need 1.5 kg of ash and 50 g of Green Soap. All this is dissolved in hot water and let it brew a little. In most cases, the solution is used to control pests, although it is a reliable feeding agent.
On ordinary days spray plants every 10-14 days, at the time of the occurrence of pests, it is necessary to do this more often - once in 5-7 days.
Infusion ash from aphids is an effective folk remedy for pest control. About the fight against aphids with vinegar let's talk further.
Many ask the question: “Does the vinegar solution help against the aphids?”. Aphid vinegar has a lot of fans among gardeners. Some argue that the fight against aphids vinegar using it only 2-3 times, will help to forget about the existence of aphids in your garden or garden.
To prepare the solution will require only 1 tbsp. l vinegar and 1 liter of water. When using vinegar essence take 1 tbsp. l 10 liters of water. Vinegar against aphids is one of the best means of struggle. Spraying vinegar from aphids should be carried out systematically. About mustard, fight against aphids with its help further.
Often the cause of aphids are ants. To get rid of them You can use a product that they do not particularly like - mustard versus aphids.
Sprinkle dry mustard in places of the largest concentration of ants and maybe the next day they will disappear. Thus, the aphid mustard is an excellent means of pest control.
This method can be used also for prophylaxis, if you, of course, do not have pets walking around the yard.
Another use of this product is a solution (100 g of powder per 10 liters of water). Spray the bushes as pests appear. Read more about iodine from aphids.
Iodine and milk
Milk and iodine from aphids are considered another popular folk method. More effective use will be on the rose bushes. However, it is worth trying out on fruit and vegetable crops.
If you asked the question: “Iodine versus aphid, how to breed?”, We will answer: for the solution, prepare 100 ml of milk, a vial of iodine, a syringe and 1 liter of water. First, add the floor of the iodine cube to the milk container. Mix thoroughly and add the resulting mixture to a container of water. After agitation, you can use it by spraying the solution onto the bushes.
Iodine against aphids is an effective remedy against garden insects.
Baking soda against aphid is a time-tested method known to many. The advantage is its simplicity and accessibility. 75 g of baking soda poured 10 liters of water. Spray this solution and fruit trees.and vegetable bushes.
In the event that this method does not help you permanently remove the lamb, it certainly does not harm your household. It is known that fruit trees soda helps to get rid of and prevent rotand cucumbers - powdery mildew.
The frequency of use, as with the previous method, determine your own. Read more about garlic versus aphids.
One of the most effective remedies is garlic for aphids. It contains elements that are toxic to aphids.. Therefore, gardeners are actively making infusions of garlic or add the product to other means when in the garden there are problems with the pest.
How to prepare the infusion of garlic from aphids? Prepare a tincture of garlic for aphids in several ways. The first is a concentrated solution that can be gradually used by diluting with water. For its preparation you will need to chop 200 g of garlic and insist them in a liter of warm water for 5 days. As you use, garlic infusion from aphids in the amount of 100 g pee in 5 liters of water.
Infusion of garlic against aphids will be an effective method of dealing with aphids. Bow from aphids, about him further.
For urgent spraying very good infusion of onion peel. She perfectly scares peststherefore 1-2 procedures will quickly “survive” from the beds.
The recipe is very simple: 200 g of onion peel is poured with warm water (10 l) and infused for 12-15 hours, then filtered and sprayed the plants without diluting the infusion with water.
Onion peel against aphids goes well with other decoctions, infusions and fertilizers.
If you have noticed an aphid, but you do not have the means to get rid of it, you can help crop plants with insecticidal properties. One of these plants is potato.
Potato tops against aphids. An infusion is made from it, which is good combined with other aphid remedies and which is absolutely safe for humans.
The result of the use of infusion of potato tops will appear after the first spraying. This infusion helps a lot with the initial stages of aphids. - when the pest is already very much, additional “medicines” may be required.
The recipe for cooking is very simple - 1.5 kg of fresh or 0.8 kg of dry tops are infused in 10 liters of water for 3-4 days. After that filter and spray the plants, paying special attention to the inside of the leaves. In the resulting infusion, you can add 30-40 of household soap for better adhesion. Potato tops from aphids will help gardeners get rid of insects.
Aphid is an unpleasant and dangerous pest and inaction when it appears may lead to more unpleasant consequences - Violation of photosynthesis of your plants, the curvature of young growing shoots and the spread of viral diseases.
Get rid of plant pests folk remedies
The main thing is to be in time, to process the plants even during the initial stage of pest development. Then the folk remedies will help. But when there are too many pests, only the application of plant protection chemicals can help. Therefore, watch your plants and start processing in a timely manner.
Folk remedies for the treatment of plant diseases
Almost all growers are faced with pests or plant diseases. Usually the most effective for combating them are chemicals. But, like antibiotics on humans, chemicals act radically on the plant microflora! And, although pest control with folk remedies requires great efforts, it has a much more benign effect.
1. Citrus Peel
Dried citrus peels scare away many insects! They can be laid out in a closet from moths, as well as in flower pots to combat the midges and headaches. For this fit any peel of citrus fruits - lemon, orange, mandarin, lime, grapefruit. Spread them on the surface of the soil, or chop and sprinkle the earth in a flower pot. It is better to do this the day after watering, or 4-5 days before watering.
To combat a more serious pest - aphids, flap and mealybug, you can also sprinkle the extract on citrus peel. For this 100 gr. dry or fresh raw materials pour a liter of warm water and leave in a dark place for 4 days.
2. Garlic and onions
An infusion of garlic will help to cope with the whitefly, the worm, the mite and the shields. To do this, chopped garlic pour boiling water at the rate of 1 head per liter of water. Present within 7 days, the "mixture" is used for spraying. At 10 liters. only 50 ml of water is sufficient. such a solution.
Garlic infusion helps with many "plant" diseases - spotting, rust, blight. Moreover, garlic can be used together with the husk, or insist on only one husk at the rate of 100 grams. husks 10 liters of water (stand for a day).
Onions have a similar effect, its smell deters aphids, thrips, other sucking pests and ticks, and is also a preventive measure against bacterial and fungal diseases. Fresh onions are grated, or ground in a blender and filled with water in a 1: 1 ratio. "Aromatic" mixture is left in a closed jar for 8 days, then used for spraying at the rate of 20 ml. infusion for 10 liters of water.
Onion peel is also used for medicinal purposes, as well as for the prevention of diseases and pests. For this 150 gr. Husks poured 10 liters. boiling water, insist throughout the day and used in its pure form. Such folk remedies for pests are used for garden and indoor plants in the summer, so that you can ventilate the room, or carry out the procedure on the balcony :-). Store infusions can not be, they should immediately spend!
Folk remedies to combat pests of the garden
Soap green and household
Pests leave invisible traces that later become the soil for the development of fungal diseases. Therefore, a soap shower is a useful procedure in the initial stages of insect control! Using a soft sponge, the leaves and stems of the plant are wiped with soapy water and then rinsed with hot water. The solution of laundry soap in its pure form is used to combat aphids, lard, mite, scutum. To this end, 200 grams. Soap (can be grated) dissolved in 10 liters. clean hot water and used for spraying.
Laundry soap, including used to increase the viscosity of therapeutic infusions and insecticides. So that the solution settles on the leaves and is better absorbed, rather than dripping from them, a little soap is rubbed into the finished brew.
Among natural products, green soap has been recognized - an oil-based herbal remedy that can be purchased at any specialty store. The range of its effects includes: aphid, chervets, mites, scytchik, powdery mildew, decay, spotting, late blight. The application and dosage indicated on the package. This drug is good because it is completely harmless to people, animals and beneficial insects.
4. Tobacco-tobacco and ash
Tobacco and ashes are used to remove gnawing and sucking insects: aphids, ticks, thrips, beetles, caterpillars, worms, etc. They also get rid of the flower midge. But pure tobacco is suitable for plants, without impurities and flavors, preferably as strong as possible! Moreover, amusing and fresh raw materials - tobacco leaves, or shag, and even tobacco dust. They make the infusion: pour hot water (at the rate of 1:10) and leave for a day. The finished solution is diluted with water 2 times, for greater viscosity they add laundry soap - 40 gr. on 10 l. The resulting mixture is carefully sprayed plants.
A similar recipe is suitable for wood ash. However, it is worth considering that the raw materials for medicinal ash should be exclusively pure materials - paper, wood. Dry tobacco and ash can lightly sprinkle the soil of potted flowers. Such a national plant protection product scares away insects, including blackflies. Among other things, ash is a valuable fertilizer.
5. Potassium permanganate, furatsilin and soda
Manganese, as a trace element, is needed for flowers. It improves growth, increases defenses, strengthens the root system! A weak solution of potassium permanganate is irrigated by the plants, together with the solution they receive a useful element, and soil pests (root scarlet, caterpillars, bugs) receive a dose of poison. At the same time, this procedure disinfects the soil for fungus and bacteria that cause diseases of the root system. However, in order not to burn the roots of the plant, the manganese solution needs to be made barely pink, just a few dots per 10 l. water! It is easier to add a few drops of a previously diluted manganese solution to the water for irrigation. This solution also sprayed flowers from aphids, ticks, whitefly.
Ordinary baking soda helps to cope with powdery mildew, fungal lesions of the leaves, and also drives off the weevil. For this 30-40 gr. soda needs to be dissolved in 10 l. water. To improve the efficiency, you can add household soap. The solution is sprayed with plants.
A similar effect has a solution of furatsilina (tablets are cheap, sold in any pharmacy). At 1 l. hot water need 2 pounded tablets. The cooled solution is sprayed with plants. Such tools are safe for garden and indoor plants.
6. Infusions and decoctions: celandine, dandelion, horsetail, nettle, wormwood, comfrey
Nettle is an excellent immunomodulator for decorative flowers. This wild doctor is applicable as a regular feeding! Infusion is watered at the root and spray them to prevent almost all diseases and pests. For the preparation of this 700 gr. fresh grass pour 5 liters. hot water, cover and leave in a warm place. After a while, the solution will begin to ferment, it must be stirred regularly. Of course, such a “drug” is easier to prepare in the country, or in your own home. After all, his smell is quite pronounced! Fermented mixture (usually on day 5) can be filtered and applied. For root dressings, the infusion is diluted 1:10 with water, and for foliar 1:20.
Similarly, in the summer, prepare the infusion of comfrey, horsetail, or wormwood. Compound infusion of composition can replace complex fertilizer: it is a valuable source of potassium and nitrogen. Wormwood also improves the immunity of flowers, is an excellent tool in the fight against bacterial diseases, aphids, leaf-eating and sucking insects.
Horsetail is used to prevent diseases and pests. It strengthens plant tissue, improves the immunity of flowers!
Such folk remedies for plants can be applied in dry form at the rate of 150 grams. dry raw materials for 10 liters. water. Insist the grass in cold water for a day, then bring to a boil in a water bath. This infusion is not diluted, used in its pure form for irrigation and spraying.
Among the plants reciprocal hands are also known celandine and dandelion! Infusion of celandine spray, or wipe the plants from scutes, mealybug and thrips. For this 100 gr. dry grass is poured with a liter of boiling water and infused for 2 days. Dandelion properties are similar, plus it neutralizes the tick! It is better to use fresh raw materials - 50g. leaves and roots pour 1 l. hot water and insist for 5 hours, after which it can be used for sheet processing.
7. Fragrant flowers: lavender, gypsophila, nasturtium, mateola, spices, marigold and calendula
There are plants that, next to other flowers, are able to create a barrier against pests and diseases. These are the so-called phytoncide plants! These include gypsophila, lavender, matiola bicorny, nasturtium, as well as spicy aromatic herbs - basil, coriander, mint, sage, thyme, lemon balm, even the usual dill and parsley, and also the previously mentioned wormwood.
What is not a reason to grow a small garden, or a fragrant mini-garden on the balcony? Запах таких растений отпугнет вредителей.Thus, being on the balcony, indoor flowers will be under the protection of natural flavors! And, by planting fragrant plants and herbs in the garden, you not only decorate the flowerbed, but also protect the flowers from the invasion of "uninvited guests." Double use!
Some plants act not only above the ground, but also in the soil, protecting neighbors from parasites and bacteria. These universal colors include calendula and marigold. Sowing them void in the flower bed, you save flowers from fungal and viral diseases. By the way, an infusion is also made from marigold flowers, which is successfully used in the fight against pests and diseases! To do this, faded marigolds are collected together with the leaves, put in a saucepan and filled with hot water 1: 1, allowed to infuse for 2 days. Filtered infusion can be used for spraying against aphids, ticks, whitefly, thrips, for the treatment of fungal diseases. It will also be useful for seedlings - against the "black leg".
If you diagnosed a pet with a disease, or discovered a pest on it, you should immediately take the following steps:
- place it in quarantine, isolating it from other brethren, in order to avoid infection,
- use a soft sponge and a solution of household soap, or a cotton pad moistened with calendula tincture, remove visible insects, or bloom from leaves,
- make a flower a warm shower, if possible cover the ground in a pot with a package,
- do not expose the patient to the sun, place him in a warm and bright place,
- having carried out leaf and root processing, fix the date to make the repeated procedure after 7-10 days (all the above recipes can be applied systematically),
- note that pests do not like moisture, so spray the plant more often, and in the presence of a fungal infection, on the contrary, reduce the humidity in the room so as not to aggravate the situation,
- carry out preventive measures - root and foliar fertilizing with herbal infusions every 10 days (read above) to stimulate the plant immunity,
- regularly inspect the wards, so as not to "miss" a relapse.
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Prevention of garden diseases and pests
Diseases and pests of garden trees not only cause serious harm to the crop, but also destroy the tree itself. Moreover, it often happens that the disease spreads from an infected tree to neighboring healthy trees. Therefore, it is very important to identify the infection in a timely manner and take appropriate measures to eliminate it. In order not to lose your trees and not harm all fruit trees in the area, it is necessary to take preventive measures to prevent the appearance of various diseases and pests.
During the growing season, fruit trees and berry bushes cannot be treated with pesticides, as the flowers can get burned, and insect pollinators die. In this regard, you need to pre-examine the trees and shrubs in your garden to identify insects and diseases that occur in the trees, in order to plan methods to combat them.
If you carefully observe the garden, the forecast can be made in advance. Those diseases and pests that appeared in the district last year are likely to appear in this too. You can also predict the disease for the expected weather. For example, in wet weather it is worth waiting for the emergence of moisture-loving diseases - apple and pear scab, currant Septoria anthracnose, strawberry gray rot. But in dry and hot weather, most likely, you will encounter an apple moth. Her raids are especially destructive, if even the previous year or two was arid weather.
To prevent scab on apples and pears, at the end of the flowering period, trees should be sprinkled with one of the following fungicides: 1% Bordeaux liquid (100 g of copper sulphate and 120-150 g of freshly sour lime), polycarbocin (40 g), polychrome (40 d), copper oxychloride (30–40 g), colloidal sulfur (50–100 g), sodium phosphate (100 g) - all chemicals are taken per 10 liters of water.
If immediately after flowering of the apple tree to use colloidal sulfur and sodium phosphate, then this event will help prevent the appearance of powdery mildew and gall mite, damaging the leaves of the pear.
As for cherry and plum trees, they can be sprayed after flowering with 1% Bordeaux mixture. This measure will help prevent the appearance of coccomycosis, nodulation and moniliosis. But spraying this preparation should be done very carefully, as it can cause leaf burn, especially in wet weather. In this regard, it is better to first sprinkle only some branches of the trees to check the effect of the drug. If a burn occurs, it will immediately become clear - separate or solid spots of dead tissue will appear 3-5 days after treatment.
You can fight with apple and plum sawflies, as well as with the cherry weevil, the larvae of which devour the ovary, by spraying the trees immediately after flowering with the following preparations: 10 and 30% karbofos (70 and 30 g), trichlormetaphos 3.5% ( 20 g), rovikurt 25 and 10% on apple and cherry (10 and 25 g), benzophosphate 10% (60 g).
If caterpillars of the ringed silkworm, apple moth, or multicolored flowers appeared on the trees, then they simply need to be removed from the branches and destroyed along with the spider nests.
To combat adult insects, it is necessary to spray the trees before the flowering period. But to fight the larvae, trees should be processed immediately after flowering.
In addition to spraying, there is another way to combat the codling moth - mechanical. Caterpillars can be caught with trapping belts and in time to collect fallen wormy fruits.
The hunting belt can be made independently. It is made of several layers of burlap or thick paper. Its width is 15–20 cm. The belt should be put on the lower part of the trunk about 25 cm from the ground, and 15–20 days after the trees bloom, tie up the top and bottom with a band of rubber or twine. The place where the belt will be fastened must be cleaned of dead bark in advance, and if there are gaps in the bark, they should be covered with clay.
Such belts should be removed once every 7-10 days, and the caterpillars destroyed, making sure that the butterflies do not fly away.
Folk remedies protect the garden from the pests: tobacco dust, potato and tomato tops
This measure is applied in the southern regions, where two generations of insects have time to develop. In the northern and central regions, as a rule, only one generation has time to develop. In these areas you need to remove the belt after harvest.
It is recommended to immediately collect the fallen wormy fruits, as the caterpillars leave them during the first night, moving to healthy fruits.
Black currant sometimes suffers from the appearance of a dangerous mycoplasmal disease - terry. It modifies shrub flowers. Petals and stamens of flowers become like small scales of bright purple color. Pestles significantly increase in size. These flowers do not form fruits.
❧ On old trees, you can scrape the bark with a scraper to remove the larvae, cocoons and eggs of various pests along with its remnants. Under the tree should lay a canvas. This “stripping” should be carried out once every three years after the leaves have fallen. Then cleaned the trunk of the tree and the base of large branches should be whitewashed.
If the currant bush is heavily damaged by this disease, then it is best to completely destroy it, since measures to combat terry are not sufficiently developed today. Sick shrubs uproot in the fall, after harvest. During the year after uprooting on this place should not be planted currants.
In order not to have to resort to such extreme measures, it is best to plant varieties of black currant that are resistant to this type: Brilliant, Desired, Promising, Success and Moscow Region.
If currant bushes are affected by currant bud mites, it is necessary to sprinkle them with colloidal sulfur (50-100 g). This treatment is carried out twice - the first time before flowering, and the second - after harvesting. If the gooseberry grows near the currant bushes, then you need to carefully ensure that the solution does not fall on the gooseberry bushes. Otherwise, leaves may fall off.
Sometimes currant and gooseberry bushes are affected by anthracnose or septoria. These diseases cause the appearance of spots on the leaves of shrubs and their premature abscission. When the first signs of this disease appear, the bushes should be sprayed with 1% Bordeaux mixture.
As a rule, in the fall or spring, gardeners spud currant and gooseberry bushes to prevent the appearance of pests hibernating on the ground on plants. For the prevention of these diseases it is best to unravel shrubs immediately after flowering.
For the prevention and control of pests and diseases on raspberry and strawberry bushes, these plants need to be treated only after harvest. This is due to the fact that the harvest of strawberries and raspberries ripens very quickly, and during flowering it is impossible to process them with pesticides.
To prevent the development of gray rot on strawberries, it is necessary to lay clean straw, pine needles or peat between the rows. You should not plant strawberry bushes too often - thick plantings can cause the development of various diseases. Also, do not apply excess doses of fertilizer to the soil. In wet summer it is best to tie strawberry bushes to a stretched rope or wire. Be sure to timely collect rotten berries and destroy them.
Tags: garden, garden pests, garden pests, garden pest control, garden pest and disease control
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METHODS OF STRUGGLE AGAINST PESTS AND PLANT DISEASES
Ways to control pests and diseases
5. Integrated Plant Protection System
Ways to combat pests and plant diseases
Among the measures to ensure the preservation and increase of crop yields, pest and disease control occupies an important place.
The success of this work depends on the timely implementation of protective measures in combination with preventive and agrotechnical methods of plant care.
Recommendations for the protection of crops from pests and diseases are grouped under the general name of a system of measures that include various methods of control — agrotechnical, mechanical, biophysical, chemical, and biological.
The effectiveness of these measures, in turn, depends on the timely identification of plant diseases and foci of the most dangerous pests.
A great help to collective and state farms in carrying out work on the control of pests and diseases is provided by the plant protection service. Plant protection stations are located in all agricultural areas of our country.
When planning and carrying out measures for the control of pests and diseases, it is necessary to take into account the peculiarities of the biology of pests and pathogens, as well as climatic and weather conditions, on which the success of plant protection measures largely depends.
1. Agrotechnical method
The development of pests and microorganisms that cause plant diseases, as well as the development of the plants themselves, depends on environmental conditions.
Agrotechnical measures are carried out in order to create conditions favorable for the development and growth of plants and at the same time prevent the spread of pests and parasitic microorganisms that cause plant diseases.
With careful tillage, the habitats of many harmful insects are destroyed, plant residues are destroyed, on which parasitic microorganisms are preserved. Poor processing makes it difficult for oxygen to enter the soil. This weakens the development of plants, reduces the reproduction of beneficial microorganisms in the soil, destroying pathogens, and contributes to the mass distribution of blackleg, root and other.
Timely sowing provides the most favorable conditions for seed germination and plant development, which makes them more resistant to damage.
The use of crop rotation with the necessary spatial isolation for crops in some cases excludes the possibility of their damage, since insects and many pathogens that are adapted to feed on certain plants, when changing crops die from lack of food.
Fertilizers and fertilizing improve the nutritional conditions of plants, which increases their resistance to damage.
Proper site selection, especially when laying perennial fruit and berry plantations, contributes to a better development of plants, increases their resistance to pests and diseases. It is known that the gooseberries and currants planted next to each other are damaged more by the gooseberry fire, in the vicinity of potatoes and tomatoes, the latter are affected by blight (potato rot).
Proper planting of crops (maintaining optimal distances between plants) contributes to a better ventilation of the site and prevents the spread of diseases such as scab of apple and pear, currant anthracnose, and many others.
The destruction of weeds, which are the food base for many pests, and fallen leaves, on which microorganisms overwhelm plant pathogens, remove dried branches, clean dead bark on fruit trees, timely watering to a large extent prevent massive accumulation of pests and harmful microorganisms.
However, it should not be forgotten that the effectiveness of the above mentioned agricultural practices strongly depends on the timing of their implementation and the particularities of development of each pest or plant disease.
For example, the use of potash or phosphate-potash fertilizers increases the resistance of many crops to damage by diseases and pests. Top dressing, carried out before the pests are settled (aphid, cabbage whitefish on cabbage), reduces the number of plants they inhabit.
Strong pruning of gooseberry, affected by powdery mildew, contributes to the development of this disease, since many young shoots are formed and favorable conditions are created for the development of the parasite (the causative agent of powdery mildew primarily affects young growing tissues).
Of great importance is the quality of planting and planting materials and the selection of varieties resistant to diseases and pests.
Thus, by changing the environmental conditions by various agrotechnical methods, it is possible to increase the yield of plants, their resistance to damage, and also contribute to the destruction of the wintering stock of pests and pathogens.
2. Physicomechanical method
The physicomechanical control method consists in the direct extermination of pests and pathogens by manually collecting and catching them with various traps and other devices.
This method is very time consuming, however, in some cases is necessary. For example, if wintering or early spring does not collect wintering nests of haws and goldfinchs hanging on trees, in spring, caterpillars emerging from nests can destroy a significant part of the leaves. The same can be said about scraping on the litter with the subsequent destruction of eggplants of the unpaired silkworm and about cutting of young shoots with rings of eggs of the ringed silkworm.
In order to catch caterpillars of the codling moth, fruitful trees impose trapping belts under which caterpillars willingly climb onto the pupation. With the same purpose, in the garden in the fall, they arrange heaps of fallen leaves, where various weevil beetles spend the winter. In late autumn such heaps are burned.
In small gardens, early spring shaking of weevils on the cloth, spread out under the trees.
The use of traps and traps against mouse-like rodents also belongs to mechanical methods of struggle.
For catching butterflies and some other pests, various light traps and electrosleepers are used. In the fight with strawberry mite, strawberry seedlings are treated in hot water.
In large vegetable farms, thermal disinfection of soil with water vapor is widely practiced.
To do this, in the cultivation room in the middle of the prepared area is laid in the longitudinal direction of the steam distribution tube connected by a rubber hose to the steam generator. The soil intended for steaming is well loosened, and then covered with heat-resistant film. The edges of the film are fixed with sandbags (1 mx 12 cm in size).
Steam (10-1100 C) is fed under the film until the temperature of the soils along the edges of the site rises to 700 C. With a pressure of 5 atm, processing continues for 10 hours, and at a pressure of 8 atm - 5 hours.
For steaming, you can also use perforated plastic pipes with a diameter of up to 5 cm, which are placed in the soil to a depth of 25-30 cm every 25 cm. The area is covered with a film on top. В этом случае пропаривание продолжается 6ч и более экономно расходуется пар. Затем трубы из остывшего грунта переносят на новый участок. Так же пропаривают грунтовую смесь, предназначенную для приготовления питательных горшочков.
Действие высокой температуры используют также для обеззараживания семенного материала. Cucumber seeds against viral diseases are dried and heated for three days at 50-520 C, and then for 24 hours at 78-800 C. Before sowing, they are moistened.
Proven folk recipes for harmful insects
Cabbage seeds stand for 20 minutes. in water at 48-500 ° C, after which they are immediately placed for 2-3 minutes. in cold water.
In the field of biophysics, work is under way on the use of radiation sterilization of insects, leading to infertility.
3. Biological method
The use of living organisms or their metabolic products to prevent or reduce damage caused by pests is called the biological control method. Under natural conditions, the number of pests is limited to many predatory and parasitic insects, various microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, fungi), insectivorous and predatory birds and mammals.
From early spring to late autumn, predatory ground beetles are found in the fields, which destroy eggs, larvae (caterpillars), pupae, and adults of many harmful insects. One ground beetle per day can destroy three to five caterpillars of the gooseberry moth, up to ten caterpillars of the rape sawfly, up to 100 gall midge larvae. No less useful are the larvae and adults of ladybirds. They actively exterminate aphids, mites, scutes, and other pests. The seven-spotted ladybird destroys up to 200 aphids per day, and the small stetorus beetle destroys up to 210 eggs of spider mites. Predatory larvae of gold-eyed and syrphid flies destroy intensively the aphids and their larvae.
An important role in reducing the number of pests is played by small parasitic insects. The parasite apanteles infects caterpillars of the cabbage moth (the first or second age), laying 20-60 eggs in their body. The hatching larvae of the parasite feed on the internal contents of the caterpillar, which dies after some time. In the gardens in the south of the country, the hymenoptera aphelinus, under favorable conditions for its development, effectively destroys the larvae and adults of blood aphids on the apple tree.
In our country, trichogram is widely used to combat many types of harmful butterflies, and the predatory mite phytoseiulus is used to destroy spider mites that damage cucumbers in greenhouses.
How to deal with pests of the garden and vegetable garden folk ways
The first are flying from the wintering grounds on coniferous crops (especially on pine) umbrella lumps, which populate the seedlings of carrots already at the stage of the first true leaflet.
It happens at the very beginning of May. The leafblock lays a microscopic egg into the base of a leaflet, after three weeks a larva is born, which develops about a month and again flies over to coniferous crops for wintering. The adult insect and the larva suck the juices from the base of the leaves, which causes them to curl, and a good carrot root cannot be obtained. Listoblashka damages only young leaves and does not touch adult leaves, because it can not pierce their coarse skin, so it is not dangerous for carrots, which have 5-6 true leaves. With very early crops of carrots in mid-April, literally through the snow, the attack of the leafblock is avoided.
Folk remedies for pests of the garden and garden
Sometimes this pest damages and parsley.
Listoblashka does not like the smell of kerosene. Pouring kerosene on the beds is far from being harmless in any concentration - it is a carcinogen that accumulates in the soil and in the body, causing cancer. In addition, if it gets into the soil, carrot roots will smell of kerosene. But you can use it as follows: stretch 3–4 sticks moistened in kerosene at a height of 5 cm above the soil just freshly planted in a carrot bed, and leafblocks will fly over such a side bed. While the carrots are not ready to grow, you can use liquid ammonia for weekly spraying of the carrot seedlings in 2–3 tablespoons per 10 liters of water. It is possible immediately after sowing carrots to cover the bed with lutrasil or spunbond and not to remove before harvesting. You can make a late sowing of carrots in early June.
With the establishment of warm weather, another pest appears - the cruciferous flea (small beetle with bronze tint), which can completely destroy the seedlings and seedlings of cabbage, turnips, radish, rutabaga, radish. Recommendations to sprinkle crops with tobacco, dust or ash do not justify themselves at all. Spraying with Bim shampoo for washing dogs against fleas helps: 3 tablespoons per 10 liters of water. Fleas multiply very quickly, so the spraying will have to be repeated weekly. In addition, flea inert in the early morning, so they are easy to shake off or assemble and destroy.
In the middle of May, at the time of the mass flowering of the cherry, the first years of vegetable flies (cabbage, carrot, onion, beet) and butterflies (cabbage soup, bedworm) occur. Usually the first years of big trouble does not deliver and there is no need to use potent drugs. But some measures should be taken, namely to disorient the pests with the strong smell of another plant, so that the pests could not find their breadwinners by smell and flew around your plantings. Here you can use any infusions of herbs with a strong smell: tansy, wormwood, yarrow, onion husks, citrus peels. It is especially good to use the infusion of weeds: this is top dressing and protection at the same time, only when watering the leaves it should be diluted with water 1: 5 so as not to cause them to burn.
What can be infusion to mid-May? From flowers mother-and-stepmother, and then dandelion, which still have nowhere to go, because you can not put them in the compost - the seeds do not rot.
In June, during the mass flowering of raspberries, there are years of pest moths: cabbage shovel, garden shovel, cabbage moth, and glass bowl.
Measures to deal with them are the same as with vegetable flies.
In the middle of July - the beginning of August, the second years of vegetable flies and cabbage pests take place, during which strong damage to vegetables and root crops is done. Flies lay eggs on the soil surface next to the plant that feeds the larvae that bite into the root or stalk of the plant, then make passages in them, damaging the roots or stalks, which leads to death of the plant or loss of the crop.
Against cabbage and onion flies, it helps to water the plantings with a solution of table salt (a glass on a bucket of water), scoop the soil away from the onion so that the bulb is on the surface of the soil, scoop the soil, and then pile up the cabbage.
Butterflies lay eggs on the underside of the leaves. The egg-laying of day-time butterflies (white cabbage or cabbage soup, white backyard) are clearly visible, they are yellow or orange in color, they are quite easy to destroy by hand. But the moths (cabbage moth, onion moth) lay individual eggs, and it is not easy to see them. Scoops (cabbage, garden and others) - also night moths. The first time they fly in May, the second in August. During the first summer, females lay their eggs mainly on weeds, but during the second summer - on cabbages and other crops. Particularly dangerous are the dirty brown caterpillars of the winter moth, which damage the roots of plants. The most effective remedy against the scoop is their disorientation by the smells of weed infusion, tomato tops, potato tops, tansy, and wormwood to prevent the butterflies from laying eggs. Day butterflies are scabs and will not lay eggs on contaminated leaves, so it is enough during the summer of butterflies to soil cabbage, having poured it with a solution of ash with soap added for good adhesion of ash to the leaves.
Caterpillars have to be harvested by hand or contaminated with bacteria, using various bacterial preparations, or by using predatory insects that lay eggs in the body of caterpillars. The use of chemical poisons is not recommended, since they can be used no later than 30 days before harvesting, in addition, drugs can get on the berries, greens and vegetables that are consumed at this time in food, and cause severe poisoning.
In greenhouses spider mites, aphids and whiteflies can annoy. The treatment of plants with chemical poisons is highly undesirable, since we intensively use greenhouses, and there are plants there all the time that we eat throughout the summer. Therefore, in the greenhouses it is necessary to use only biological methods of pest control or use the preparations of the new generation “Fitoverm” and “Iskra-bio”. If the whitefly divorced in too large numbers, you can get rid of it with the help of the chemical preparation "Confidor".
Harvesting a good and rich harvest is the dream of every gardener, to achieve which a person uses all sorts of methods and techniques. Today, the protection of the garden and the vegetable garden against diseases and pests, the means of protection from which are very diverse, is of particular relevance. It would seem that a lot of work has been invested in the choice of varieties of garden crops and saplings, all the sowing work has been done according to all the rules of agricultural engineering, but the long-awaited fruits have not been collected. What is the reason? Looking closely at your country dacha possessions, you can see a nondescript web with caterpillars, fiercely scrambling back and forth of ants and many more unfamiliar bugs quietly swarming around the young (and not so) landings. Such unpleasant guests who settled in their summer cottage, can not only reduce the amount of the crop, but also lead to its complete destruction.
Therefore, it is worth to start protecting your garden and garden against pests and diseases much earlier, when insects have not even thought of settling in a garden with vegetables. The best option is to conduct a different set of activities at the end of the summer season, as well as the use of protective equipment for processing the site and planting. But spring work can also be considered an excellent option, although in addition to them a lot of things need to be debugged on the site. Protecting your planting will not only have to be caused by harmful insects, but also by all sorts of viruses and bacteria, which begin an active process of their reproduction immediately when creating a favorable environment. Protective activities in the garden include a variety of methods and means, among which any gardener will choose for himself the perfect fit to his natural conditions.
Rules for the protection of the garden
In gardening and horticulture, as in medicine, it is better to prevent the development of the disease than to spend time and energy on their treatment. To achieve this effect, subject to certain rules of growing crops:
1. All the work of the preventive plan, characteristic of a particular season, should be carried out on time.
2. When choosing plant varieties for planting at their summer cottage, priority should be given to those species that are more resistant to diseases and pests.
3. All garden plantings that have been mechanically affected or pruned must be treated to protect with a special grout.
4. An important condition for the normal growth and development of all horticultural crops is their proper and complete nutrition, since in some cases insufficient amounts of moisture and fertilizers can manifest themselves by various signs of disease.
5. Plant resistance to the effects of adverse factors on diseases can be improved by carrying out proper agricultural work:
- Timely cleaning of the soil from fallen leaves and fruits.
- Conducting autumn digging of the soil, which will allow to raise harmful insects on the soil surface.
- Whitewashing trees.
- All planting should be carried out taking into account soil acidity, planting dates and climatic characteristics of planting crops.
- Soil fertilization should be performed in accordance with the needs of plants, since an excess of nitrogen fertilizing leads to a weakening of the protection of green plantings.
- For breeding crops, it is recommended to use only healthy planting material, not forgetting to periodically clean the bark of trees from various growths.
How to protect the garden from diseases and pests
To eliminate insect pests on their land plot, summer residents resort to using various methods, and folk remedies are especially popular.
With the awakening of the garden after hibernation, it is important to conduct a thorough examination of the trees and shrubs. Finding damaged branches, cut them off and burn. Upon careful inspection, you can see the nests of such unpleasant garden guests as hawthorn and gold-tails, as well as ringed silkworm egg-laying, which must be removed from the branches and destroyed.
Not all gardeners want to use chemical weapons in their garden, and many prefer folk art.
Reliable protection from diseases and pests gives this vegetable. Broths of onion peel help to get rid of these not proshёnyh guests like aphid and mite. It is prepared according to the following recipe: about 100-160 grams of onion peel is poured with 10 liters of water, the resulting mass is drawn for 5-6 days, after which it is filtered and used for spraying the plants,
Phytoncides contained in it help to completely get rid of or destroy various bacteria and pests. Especially helps this tool to destroy insects such as aphid, mite, sucker, as well as many bacterial and fungal diseases. To prepare the infusion, about 200 grams of garlic are chopped up into a mush (or using a garlic press) and adding a liter of water to it, leaving it to stand for a couple of days. The resulting solution is filtered, topped up with 9-10 liters of water and sprayed the diseased cultures. Especially helps the garlic brew in the fight against ants that simply do not tolerate its smell,
Decoction of wormwood
To get rid of gnawing caterpillars will help the decoction of this plant, which is prepared in the following way: 1 kg of this herb, pour 1 liter of water and keep on fire for no more than 15-20 minutes. The resulting liquid is filtered and diluted with 10 liters of water,
If you wish to further enhance the effect of the use of broth, you should add to it a bit of infusion of chicken manure, aged for 2-3 days. It is enough to carry out several treatments of garden trees with such a mixture with a frequency of 6-7 days to protect them and the existence of caterpillars can be completely forgotten.
One of the poisonous plants, which is widely used to get rid of fungal diseases, spider mites and bedbugs. The solution for the treatment of garden crops is prepared in the following way: 1 kg of the dried plant is poured about 1 liter of water and infused during the day. The resulting infusion of henbane is filtered and diluted in it about 1/4 of a piece of laundry soap. Cooked means treated young planting and adult trees.
Wet weather creates particularly favorable conditions for the development of scab of fruit trees, strawberry gray rot, currant anthracnose, and dry weather, on the contrary, significantly slows down or stops their development.
The main scourge of the southern and southeastern gardens is shaggy bronze, which eats flowers of trees. The simplest and most famous way of dealing with it is simply shaking it onto any fabric and then destroying it.
Many trees in the summer cottage suffer from the larvae of sawflies, which damage the ovary on plants and already formed fruits. To combat them, periodical shaking of the branches of horticultural crops and destruction of the damaged ovary with the larvae of sawflies on it will be suitable. To fight with adult individuals, shaking them to the litter will be appropriate before the gardens start flowering. The soil is a place of large accumulation of sawflies and other pests, therefore its careful digging and loosening will contribute to their early destruction.
Destroy apple and plum moth
The most popular pest of garden trees is the apple and plum moth, which experienced gardeners are fighting in several ways. With a small number of garden plants, you can resort to the help of sex pheromones - special sex substances, to which the males of these butterflies actively respond.
Among the common means of protection against this enemy of garden crops, preference is given to the use of trapping belts and the collection of wormy fallen fruits. To make a trap belt, they take burlap, folded in several layers, and adjust it to the lower part of the tree trunk for about 16-20 days after the beginning of flowering. With the development of the moth in one generation, such belts are removed at the end of the harvest, and in the area where this insect develops over several generations, resort to the destruction of caterpillars every 8-10 days. Fallen fruits are a cluster of moths that tend to leave it on the first night. That is why it is important to collect the damaged fruits as soon as possible and give them for recycling, or simply to fill them with a layer of earth.
Among the diseases of horticultural crops, currant terry often occurs, the signs of which are the deformation of the flowering brush and the change in the appearance of the flowers. Сегодня единственным способом защиты от этой болезни является полная ликвидация поврежденных кустов.
К помощи химических препаратов прибегают в тех случаях, когда применение других средств в качестве защиты не дало нужного положительного результата.
Часто на листьях крыжовника и смородины можно заметить образование пятен, что вызывает их быстрое опадение. Such a disease is called anthracnose and septoriosis, which is controlled by spraying with a solution of 1% Bordeaux liquid.
Spraying (and according to the instructions!) They should be performed only after the flowering period is over, and for a specific fight against leaf and fruit eaters, they are treated with solutions karbofos or rovikurta.
Folk remedies and plants
Since vegetables, which are grown in the garden, are subsequently used for food, the fight against diseases and insect pests must be carried out using means that are safe for the human body.
A good protective method is growing crops with insecticidal properties in your garden. Such plants have the ability not only to scare away the harmful guests of vegetable crops, but also to suppress the development of various diseases. Planting such plants as nettle, chamomile, lemon balm, wormwood and celandine next to the beds will help not only scare away many insects, but also increase the amount of the crop thanks to good pollination. Many garden pests do not tolerate aromas coriander, marigolds, calendula and basilica. Growing such decorative plantings on your plot will help protect young seedlings from the onslaught of harmful insects.
The Colorado potato beetle feels hostility to dill and parsley, so the location of the potatoes next to these plants will help reduce the number of this pest.
Among the traditional means of protecting the garden from diseases and insect invasions, you can use the following recipes:
- To get rid of aphids on vegetables will help the solution prepared on the basis of laundry soap: 300 grams of this product is simply dissolved in 10 liters of water,
- A unique tool that helps protect cabbage from voracious caterpillars is tobacco dustthat is sprinkled with vegetables,
- Infusion, prepared on the basis of burdock leavesIt helps to destroy leaf-eating caterpillars and aphids on cabbage and radish. For its preparation use 1/3 of a bucket of burdock leaves, which is poured with boiling water, kept for several days, then they are sprayed,
- For scaring cruciferous flea from radish, radish and cabbage seedlings use wood ash,
- Infusion made from leaves and stems dandelions (400-500 grams of finely chopped leaves and rhizomes of this plant are poured with a bucket of water and infused for a couple of hours. You do not need to dilute the resulting solution), it helps to destroy aphids on various vegetable crops.
Among the diseases that crops grown in the garden suffer from are the following:
- Gray rot can infect all plants, penetrating through its damaged areas. The main means of struggle is to remove diseased parts or the whole plant, and to prevent the development of infection, it is necessary to remove rotting fruits and leaves from the beds.
- Plant spotting is manifested by the appearance of dark spots on vegetable crops. The main reason for the development of this disease is increased humidity and neglect of planting, and the main way to control is to remove diseased parts of plants and observe the rules of crop rotation.
- Signs of late blight is the appearance of brown areas on the leaves of potatoes, cucumbers and tomatoes. It is important to prevent live spores from contact with root vegetables, otherwise they will get phytophthora during storage. In order to avoid this, they are hilling the stalks with earth and removing all diseased areas about 5-10 days before the digging of potatoes. As a preventive measure, it is recommended to spray the plant with a fungicide immediately after pinching.
From helping to destroy pests of vegetables and horticultural crops, use "Decis", "Spark", "Karate", "Basudin", "Ridomil"and others widely represented in specialized stores.
Of course, the protection of the garden and the garden from unpleasant diseases and insects is an important component in the struggle for the harvest and all sorts of means and methods are allowed to achieve positive results. However, compliance with preventive measures at the dacha will help not only to reduce the number of harmful insects, but also in some cases to protect them from occurring.
Vegetable oil from sunflower is added by gardeners to home-made insecticidal tinctures, as an adhesive and flavoring, when struggling with adult insects. Vegetable oil envelops the airways and the wings of a pest that escaped from an insecticidal trap; this insect will certainly die over time. Vegetable oil is also added to liquid aromatic traps, arranged by gardeners at the foot or on the branches of fruit trees.
Kefir is a fermented milk product, with its help gardeners also struggle with the manifestation of fungal infections in solanaceous crops. In kefir are lactic acid bacteria and fungi, they inhibit fungi with phytophthora spores. Kefir bacteria themselves serve as a fertilizer for cucumbers.
If it is visually visible that cucumber beds are oppressed and the plants do not grow well, their leaf covering starts to turn yellow, then to stop leaf dying, the two-liter kefir package is poured into 10 liters of water. This mixture is shaken and cucumber leaves are sprayed with a homemade, grassy broom. An excellent sheet top dressing for adult tomato bushes is such a talker: liter bag of kefir diluted in a bucket of water.
As a preventive measure against the manifestation of phytophtoras, tomato seedlings are processed in the stage of four true leaves with this solution: 0.5 l package of kefir is taken, 1 tbsp is added to it. Coca-Cola. All this is poured 10 liters of water and stirred. The solution is prepared.
Milk serumGardeners and gardeners use the serum remaining during the fermentation of sour milk as one of the measures in the fight against late blight. Serum has established itself as a successful fighter against fungal diseases in tomatoes and grapes. Whey contains many mineral supplements and fertilizes grown crops. Serum is applied by spraying over the sheet. Usually it is not sprayed through a sprayer, but applied to the vegetative mass of plants by irrigating over the leaf. Serum is used in the form of a water solution:
- for feeding under the plant root - one liter of whey is added to 10 liters of water,
- for foliar application, a solution of the same concentration is made; the leaves of the culture are sprayed with it.
There are several similar recipes, each of which uses serum.
Recipe # 1.
For such feeding you need to use a large old barrel or another deep container. 2/3 of chicken manure shovels are poured with 2-3 buckets of water, half a bucket of wood ash, 500 g of fresh, non-frozen yeast are added to the same place. The mixture is stirred, tightly closed and left for 10-15 days to ferment. The finished brew is very concentrated and needs to be diluted with water.
When watering, 1 liter of concentrate is taken under the root of the fertilized crops and added to a ten-liter bucket of pure water. When fertilizing it is necessary to take into account that for each fertilized plant a rate of 0.5 liters of the already diluted solution should be used.
Recipe # 2.
A large 200-liter barrel half-capacity filled with freshly mowed grass, there is poured a bucket of wood ash, add a three-liter jar of whey. Barrel to the top is poured with water, covered with a lid and left to ferment. Barrel set in a sunny place. The fermentation process is considered completed in 14-20 days. For fertilizer, the resulting slush is diluted one to one with pure water. On one plant you need 0.5 liters of diluted solution for feeding under the root.
Recipe # 3.
On 3 l of whey add seven and a half tablespoons of honey, shaken and insist hour. Next, add 20 drops of iodine and 500 g of ash. The solution is again mixed and left for two days to insist. Apply as root dressing, without diluting. This solution is very effective in preplant preparation of seeds for sowing.
With the help of garlic, plant growers effectively fight against the domination of aphids, fruit mites, and suckers. Also, solutions of garlic are effective in the form of natural fungicides on tomatoes, peppers, and grapes. Option 1.
This garlic tincture is used for spraying plants from leaf pests. To prepare such a tincture, two large heads of garlic are passed through a garlicker, this mass is added to a bucket of cold water. The liquid is well mixed and left to infuse.
A day tincture is ready. In order to pour the solution into the sprayer, it is carefully filtered. The liquid must be free of impurities, otherwise the sprinkler will not work normally.
Option # 2.
Leaf rust, aphid or spider mites also react negatively to treatment with garlic extracts.
Prepare such a solution can be as follows: six large heads of garlic put pressure on the garlic box, pour 5 liters of water, shake. After stirring, the resulting water mixture is filtered through cheesecloth, carefully squeezing the thick. After that, the marc of minced garlic is again poured with water, shaken and drained again. Both the resulting extracts of garlic pulp is poured into a total container and added to 8-9 liters of water. The extract obtained plants are processed in cloudy weather or in the evening. If the first treatment is not enough, then the next week the next spray is carried out on the sheet.
Option # 3.
Another very effective infusion against aphids and spider mites made from garlic:
Three four large garlics are taken, ground into mush and placed on the bottom of a three-liter jar. Then the bank is poured to the neck with water. Capacity put in a warm and dark place for a week. The result is a concentrate. In one bucket of water pour 50 g of concentrate, stir and use garlic infusion from aphids for the intended purpose.
Dried egg shells are used by gardeners to feed plants with calcium. To do this, it is poured into the planting pit in a crushed state when disembarking vegetable crops to a permanent place.
Simultaneously with the functions of feeding, the crushed eggshell repels the bear. Wishing to gnaw the stem of a young plant, Medvedka encounters the sharp edges of the shell, experiencing discomfort, the insect retreats.
Not wanting to use chemistry in their beds, gardeners and gardeners use the experience of several generations, using in practice recipes for the destruction of pests and plant nutrition with environmentally friendly, organic preparations.